Berkeley DB 2.4.10 Change Log

Interface Changes Introduced in DB 2.4.10:

  1. Support has been added for architectures with 16-bit integers, largely to port Berkeley DB to the Windows 3.1 platform. This required extensive code changes, although almost all of them were only semantic in nature. In almost all of the DB public interfaces, including any public structure elements, all variables of type "int" or "unsigned int" have been converted to be either type "int32_t" or "u_int32_t".

    Previously built binaries on any 32-bit machine should be backward compatible, however, previously built binaries on machines with 64-bit integers will not be binarily compatible. Applications should recompile correctly without warning or error, unless there are explicit casts in the application source code. This change may NOT be transparent to applications.

  2. Support has been added to allow Berkeley DB to use shared memory backed by a paging file or swap space (as opposed to backed by the regular file system) on both UNIX and Win95/WNT platforms. This required a major rework of the shared memory support in DB, and, for this reason, the DB version 2.4.10 release should, perhaps, be tested more thoroughly than usual in your local environment before committing to the upgrade. This change caused the db_jump_set(3) and db_value_set(3) functions to change.

    The db_jump_set(3) function interface specified by the DB_FUNC_MAP flag has changed. A new interface, specified by the DB_FUNC_RUNLINK flag has been added. Applications replacing these functions at run time will require additional care in upgrading to this release of DB.

    The db_value_set(3) function interface has two additional flags: DB_REGION_ANON and DB_REGION_NAME, which allow applications to specify regions are to be created when using memory backed by a paging file.

    See the db_internal(3) manual page for further information.

  3. The db_jump_set(3) interface no longer supports the DB_FUNC_CALLOC and DB_FUNC_STRDUP flags. Applications may continue to set the functions associated with those flags, but they are no longer needed and no longer have any effect.

  4. The db_value_set(3) interface has an additional flag: DB_REGION_INIT, which permits applications to specify that regions should be page-faulted into memory immediately upon creation. This fixes a problem where the additional time required to page-fault in region memory caused locks to convoy inside of the shared memory buffer pool.

    This additionally required an interface change to the DB_FUNC_SEEK interface as specified by the db_jump_set(3) function interface. The "relative" argument is now a "u_int32_t" instead of a "u_long", and there is an additional argument "isrewind" in order to support seeking in the reverse direction.

    See the db_internal(3) manual page for further information. This change may NOT be transparent to applications.

  5. The log_put(3) function has an additional flag: DB_CURLSN, which permits applications to determine the next log LSN value which will be used. This, coupled with changes to the transaction subsystem to no longer write transaction-begin records allows Berkeley DB to avoid writing any log records in the case of read-only transactions.

  6. The interface to the hcreate(3) function has been changed to take a "size_t" as an argument instead of an "unsigned int", for compatibility with vendor platforms, notably Solaris. This change may NOT be transparent to applications.

  7. Specifying NULL or zero-length keys to DB functions is now explicitly disallowed by most of the DB interfaces, and EINVAL will be returned. This change may NOT be transparent to applications.

  8. Performance measurements of Berkeley DB indicated that a significant amount of time was being spent clearing pages created in the shared memory buffer pool. In order to fix this, additional information has been added to the memp_fopen(3) interface which allows callers to specify the number of bytes which need to be cleared when pages are created in the pool. The default behavior of the pool code is unchanged, and by default the entire page is cleared.

    However, the memp_fopen(3) function interface has changed: 4 of the lesser-used historic arguments and the new argument have been moved to an information structure of type DB_MPOOL_FINFO which is passed to the memp_fget function as an argument. See the db_mpool(3) man page for more information. This change may NOT be transparent to applications.

  9. An interface has been added to the db_checkpoint(1) function allowing database administrators to force a single checkpoint. See the db_checkpoint(1) man page for more information.

Configuration and Build Changes:

  1. The environment variables used to specify a compiler, loader or compile and loader flags during DB configuration have been changed to be more in line with standard GNU autoconf practice. The changes are as follows:

    Old NameNew Name
    ADDCPPFLAGSCPPFLAGS
    ADDCXXFLAGSCXXFLAGS
    ADDLDFLAGSLDFLAGS
    ADDLIBSLIBS

    See the file build.unix/README for further information.

  2. The DB debugging support (previously configured by specifying --enable-debug during configuration) has been split into two separate pieces of functionality.

    To build DB with -g as a compiler flag and with DEBUG #defined during compilation, enter --enable-debug as an argument to configure. This will create DB with debugging symbols, as well as load various routines that can be called from a debugger to display pages, cursor queues and so forth. This flag should probably not be specified when configuring to build production binaries, although there shouldn't be any significant performance degradation.

    To build DB with diagnostic, run-time sanity checks and with DIAGNOSTIC #defined during compilation, enter --enable-diagnostic as an argument to configure. This will cause a number of special checks to be performed when DB is running. This flag should NOT be specified when configuring to build production binaries, as you will lose a significant amount of performance.

  3. Some systems, notably versions of AIX, HP/UX and Solaris, require special compile-time options in order to create files larger than 2^32 bytes. These options are automatically enabled when DB is compiled. For this reason, binaries built on current versions of these systems may not run on earlier versions of the system, as the library and system calls necessary for large files are not available. To disable building with these compile-time options, enter --disable-bigfile.

  4. The autoconf configure script has been enhanced to correctly support --disable-feature or --enable-feature=no options.

  5. The Berkeley DB test suite has been re-ordered to run system tests before the tests of the individual access methods.

  6. The Berkeley DB test suite has been largely ported to the Windows 3.1 environment. See the distribution file test/README.win32 for more information.

  7. Mutex lock support for the GCC compiler and the PaRisc architecture has been added.

  8. The db_printlog(1) debugging utility is now built by default, and the db_stat(1) utility is now built on Win95/WNT platforms.

  9. A number of C, C++ and Java compiler warnings have been fixed.

  10. Support has been added for the Siemens-Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG ReliantUNIX platform.

  11. Ports of Berkeley DB to the HP MPE/iX and Windows 3.1 environments have been begun. They are not yet complete.

B+tree Access Method Bug Fixes:

  1. When performing btree range searches (i.e., using the DB_SET_RANGE interface, or using the DB version 1.85 compatibility interface), the Btree access method could incorrectly return already deleted records.

  2. When using a cursor to delete key/data pairs from a btree database, it was possible to leave empty pages in the database. This did not cause incorrect behavior, however, it could lead to unexpected growth in the database.

  3. When doing a partial put into a off-page (i.e., "overflow") record, the Btree access method could incorrectly store the data item.

  4. When an off-page (i.e., "overflow") record was promoted to an internal page of a Btree database, DB applications could dump core when walking the tree on machines where a certain stack variable was not automatically initialized to 0.

  5. When an off-page (i.e., "overflow") item was promoted into an internal page in a Btree database, DB applications reading databases on machines with different byte orders could incorrectly walk the Btree, potentially dumping core.

  6. When Btree databases had record numbering turned on (the DB_RECNUM option), it was possible for the record numbers to fail to stay synchronized with changes in the database.

Recno Access Method Bug Fixes:

  1. When iterating through Recno access method databases, DB could incorrectly return EINVAL instead of the next key/data pair.

  2. Previous releases of DB did not permit Recno access method databases to be opened read-only.

  3. When reading the last record in a Recno access method database, DB could incorrectly return DB_NOTFOUND instead of the key/data pair.

  4. When a key/data item was deleted using the cursor interface to a Recno access method database, a subsequent put using DB_NOOVERWRITE set would fail.

  5. Because DB version 2 lazily instantiates the underlying shared memory buffer pool files, the DB->fd call for Recno databases in the DB 1.85 compatibility interface did not always work.

C++ and Java API Bug Fixes:

  1. When the C++ interface Db::get() function was called, DB incorrectly treated the DB_NOTFOUND case as an exception instead of returning DB_NOTFOUND.

  2. The DB Java interface now sets the CLASSPATH variable instead of depending on -classpath. This allows DB to work with the SGI JDK 3.0.1.

  3. Using Dbc.next with the DB_SET or DB_SET_RANGE options in the DB Java interface would not correctly position the cursor.

  4. The DB Java interface now works correctly with the Solaris JDK 1.2.

Additional Bug Fixes:

  1. Shared regions now work correctly for multiple processes on Windows/95 platforms.

  2. It was possible under rare conditions to return illegal addresses when read-only databases were mapped into the process address space.

  3. When a DB environment had already been specified, setting the "db_cachesize" field of the DB_INFO structure would be silently ignored by db_open(3). In DB version 2.4.10, specifying a DB environment as well as setting db_cachesize is considered an error, returning EINVAL.

  4. Several boundary conditions were identified and fixed in database recovery.

  5. Key-not-found and errno returns were being set incorrectly in the dbm/ndbm interface compatibility functions.

  6. Under some conditions, database files could still be synced to disk on close, even if the DB_NOSYNC flag was specified to the DB->close function.

  7. Under some conditions, the db_archive utility output could contain multiple slashes in pathnames.

  8. The db_archive utility would always prepend the current working directory pathname when the -a option was specified, regardless of the DB environment information indicating that the database home was at an absolute pathname.

  9. Page create statistics were not correctly maintained when the DB_MPOOL_NEW option was specified to the shared memory buffer pool subsystem.

  10. Under rare conditions, log offsets were not maintained correctly when switching between log files.

Additional Changes:

  1. The transaction ID space in Berkeley DB is 2 31, or 2 billion entries. It is possible that some environments may need to be aware of this limitation. Consider an application performing 600 transactions a second for 15 hours a day. The transaction ID space will run out in roughly 66 days:
    2 31 / (600 * 15 * 60 * 60) = 66

    Doing only 100 transactions a second exhausts the transaction ID space in roughly one year.

    In order to decrease the likelihood of exhausting the transaction ID space, Berkeley DB now resets the transaction ID each time that recovery is run. See db_txn(1) for more information.

  2. The limitations on database lifetime imposed by the Berkeley DB logging subsystem has been documented. See db_log(3) for more information.

  3. Performance measurements of Berkeley DB indicated that a significant amount of time was spent in searching hash queues in the shared memory buffer pools. The internal DB hash bucket code has been enhanced to handle much larger core memories than was possible previously, which should result in increased performance when using large memory pool caches.

  4. Performance measurements of Berkeley DB indicated that a significant amount of time was spent in searching lock queues, and, specifically, in calculating hash values of lock queue elements. Fast hash functions specifically for DB's use have been added to the lock subsystem to alleviate this problem.

  5. Performance measurements of Berkeley DB indicated that a significant amount of time was spent in determining the number of processors on the Windows/NT platform. The value is now determined initially and then stored.

  6. Historically, the db_appinit(3) function returned EINVAL if an application attempted recovery, by specifying DB_RECOVER or DB_RECOVER_FATAL, and there were no log files currently in the database environment. In the 2.4.10 release, this is no longer an error.

  7. The mutex locking code has been enhanced to no longer attempt full test-and-set instructions unless there is a strong probability of acquiring the mutex. This makes spinning on the mutex significantly less expensive.

  8. The count of attempted mutex locks (mutex_set_wait) has been changed to be incremented every time a process/thread is refused the lock, instead of only once when it first requests the lock and is denied.

  9. The db_dump185(1) utility has been enhanced to dump DB version 1.86 databases as well as DB version 1.85 databases.

  10. The db_stat(1) utility has been enhanced to display values larger than 10 million in a new format, "###M".

  11. The db_stat(1) utility has been enhanced to display lock region statistics. See db_stat(1) and db_lock(3) for more information.

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