Front Controller

Brief Description

Many interactive Web applications are composed of brittle collections of interdependent Web pages. Such applications can be hard to maintain and extend.

The Front Controller pattern defines a single component that is responsible for processing application requests. A front controller centralizes functions such as view selection, security, and templating, and applies them consistently across all pages or views. Consequently, when the behavior of these functions need to change, only a small part of the application needs to be changed: the controller and its helper classes.

Detailed Description

Detailed Example

  • Centralizing request processing and view selection.

    A Servlet is utilized as the main point of entry for web requests. The class MainServlet is the front controller for the Java Pet Store sample application website. All requests that end with *.do are mapped to go through the MainServlet for processing. The following code excerpts form the core of the controller. A sequence diagram outlining the actions taken by the MainServlet in response to the user request appears in Figure 1 below.

    Figure 1. Sequence diagram of MainServlet in action

    The MainServlet source code is straightforward:

    • The methods that process HTTP POST and GET (transition number 1 in Figure 1) both use method doProcess, shown in this example. The method receives the request and response, and passes the request to the RequestProcessor , which dispatches the request to the business logic (represented by the "Model" in Figure 1 above) that handles it. The request processor executes an application function that corresponds to the request URL ("2: dispatch" in Figure 1). The map from request URLs to application functions is defined in an XML file, mappings.xml.
                        private void doProcess(HttpServletRequest request,                        HttpServletResponse response)    throws IOException, ServletException {     ...    try {       getRequestProcessor().processRequest(request);              
    • After dispatching the request to the business logic, the controller then passes the request to the ScreenFlowManager , which chooses the next screen to display, again based on the contents of mappings.xml ("3: select view" in Figure 1). Exceptions can also be mapped to screens in mappings.xml: if business logic throws an exception, the exception is stored in the request, and the next screen is chosen based on the exception type. If no next screen is defined, a default screen is used.
                                getScreenFlowManager().forwardToNextScreen(request, response);     } catch (Throwable ex) {       String className = ex.getClass().getName();       nextScreen = getScreenFlowManager().getExceptionScreen(ex);       // put the exception in the request       request.setAttribute("javax.servlet.jsp.jspException", ex);       if (nextScreen == null) {          // send to general error screen          ex.printStackTrace();          throw new ServletException("MainServlet: unknown exception: " +             className);       }    }              
    • Finally, the front controller forwards the request to the next screen ("4: present view" in Figure 1). The component (usually the templating service) at the URL for the next screen receives the screen name and any server-side state defined by the previous operations. This functionality is delegated to the ScreenFlowManager , which forwards to the next screen.

Copyright © 2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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