Core Java provides the foundation for internationalization of desktop and server applications.
See the documentation:
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The user interface libraries in the Java SE platform enable the development of rich interactive applications. Internationalization aspects include:
- Text input is the process of entering new text into a document - in the simplest case through typing on a keyboard, but often involving front-end software such as input methods, handwriting recognition, or speech input.
- Text display is a multistep process that includes selecting a font, arranging text into paragraphs and lines, selecting glyphs for characters or character sequences, and rendering these glyphs. Some writing systems require bidirectional text layout for Arabic and Hebrew, or complex character-to-glyph mappings for Arabic, Thai, and the scripts of India. Text display is handled by the Java 2D graphics system and the Swing toolkit for lightweight user interface components; by AWT for peered user interface components.
- User interface layout needs to accommodate text expansion or shrinkage caused by localization, and match the direction of the user's writing system. For example, English-speaking users expect the tools in a tool bar to be organized from left to right, but users of a right-to-left language such as Arabic expect the tools to be organized from right to left.
See the documentation:
The J2EE technologies build on the internationalization foundation provided by Core Java. Of particular interest are the web tier technologies:
- The Servlet and JavaServer Pages specifications address locale identification and character encoding issues.
- The JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library provides tags that enable localization and locale-sensitive formatting through JSP tags.Internationalization and Localization chapter of Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE Platform
Developing Multilingual Web Applications Using JSP Technology ( 日本語, 中文)
The J2ME configurations (Connected Limited Device Configuration and Connected Device Configuration) provide subsets of the internationalized APIs in Core Java. The layered profiles complement these with subsets of the Desktop Java APIs (Personal Profile, Personal Basis Profile), or provide their own internationalized APIs (Mobile Information Device Profile, Mobile Internationalization API).
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