The Java Language Environment

 
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7.1 Threads at the Java Language Level

Built-in support for threads provides Java programmers with a powerful tool to improve interactive performance of graphical applications. If your application needs to run animations and play music while scrolling the page and downloading a text file from a server, multithreading is the way to obtain fast, lightweight concurrency within a single process space. Threads are sometimes also called lightweight processes or execution contexts.

Threads are an essential keystone of Java. The Java library provides a Thread class that supports a rich collection of methods to start a thread, run a thread, stop a thread, and check on a thread's status.

Java thread support includes a sophisticated set of synchronization primitives based on the widely used monitor and condition variable paradigm introduced twenty years ago by C.A.R. Hoare and implemented in a production setting in Xerox PARC's Cedar/Mesa system. Integrating support for threads into the language makes them much easier to use and more robust. Much of the style of Java's integration of threads was modelled after Cedar and Mesa.

Java's threads are pre-emptive, and depending on platform on which the Java interpreter executes, threads can also be time-sliced. On systems that don't support time-slicing, once a thread has started, the only way it will relinquish control of the processor is if another thread of a higher priority takes control of the processor. If your applications are likely to be compute-intensive, you might consider how to give up control periodically by using the yield() method to give other threads a chance to run; doing so will ensure better interactive response for graphical applications.


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