What is a document database?
A document database is a type of nonrelational database designed to store, retrieve, and manage document-oriented information. Rather than having a schema defined upfront, document databases allow for storing data in collections consisting of documents. NoSQL databases and JSON databases are types of document databases.
Document databases are often popular among developers because they store data in a document-model format (semi-structured) rather than relational (structured). Document databases offer more flexibility, because developers don’t have to plan out the schemas ahead of time and they can use the same format they’re using in their application code. This means the careful planning of a SQL database isn’t as necessary, which makes document databases useful for rapidly evolving schemas, which can be common in software development. But this can come at the cost of speed, size, and specificity.
When it comes to choosing between a relational database and a document database, developers should think carefully about what they plan to do with the data. Working with large quantities of unorganized data typically calls for a document database. Working with structured data usually calls for a relational database. Of course, developers can choose a converged database to have the best of both worlds.