by Robert Chase
Published February 2013
When a server that's supporting a database or an application server goes down, it's often a race to get critical services back up and running especially if it is an important production system. When attempting to determine the root cause after the initial triage, it's often a mystery as to why the application or database suddenly stopped functioning. In certain situations, the root cause of the issue can be traced to the system running low on memory and killing an important process in order to remain operational.
The Linux kernel allocates memory upon the demand of the applications running on the system. Because many applications allocate their memory up front and often don't utilize the memory allocated, the kernel was designed with the ability to over-commit memory to make memory usage more efficient. This over-commit model allows the kernel to allocate more memory than it actually has physically available. If a process actually utilizes the memory it was allocated, the kernel then provides these resources to the application. When too many applications start utilizing the memory they were allocated, the over-commit model sometimes becomes problematic and the kernel must start killing processes in order to stay operational. The mechanism the kernel uses to recover memory on the system is referred to as the out-of-memory killer or OOM killer for short.
When troubleshooting an issue where an application has been killed by the OOM killer, there are several clues that might shed light on how and why the process was killed. In the following example, we are going to take a look at our
syslog to see whether we can locate the source of our problem. The
oracle process was killed by the OOM killer because of an out-of-memory condition. The capital
Killed indicates that the process was killed with a
-9 signal, and this is usually a good sign that the OOM killer might be the culprit.
grep -i kill /var/log/messages* host kernel: Out of Memory: Killed process 2592 (oracle).
We can also examine the status of low and high memory usage on a system. It's important to note that these values are real time and change depending on the system workload; therefore, these should be watched frequently before memory pressure occurs. Looking at these values after a process was killed won't be very insightful and, thus, can't really help in investigating OOM issues.
[root@test-sys1 ~]# free -lm total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 498 93 405 0 15 32 Low: 498 93 405 High: 0 0 0 -/+ buffers/cache: 44 453 Swap: 1023 0 1023
On this test virtual machine, we have 498 MB of low memory free. The system has no swap usage. The
-l switch shows high and low memory statistics, and the
-m switch puts the output in megabytes to make it easier to read.
[root@test-sys1 ~]# egrep 'High|Low' /proc/meminfo HighTotal: 0 kB HighFree: 0 kB LowTotal: 510444 kB LowFree: 414768 kB
The same data can be obtained by examining
/proc/memory and looking specifically at the high and low values. However, with this method, we don't get swap information from the output and the output is in kilobytes.
Low memory is memory to which the kernel has direct physical access. High memory is memory to which the kernel does not have a direct physical address and, thus, it must be mapped via a virtual address. On older 32-bit systems, you will see low memory and high memory due to the way that memory is mapped to a virtual address. On 64-bit platforms, virtual address space is not needed and all system memory will be shown as low memory.
While looking at
/proc/memory and using the
free command are useful for knowing "right now" what our memory usage is, there are occasions when we want to look at memory usage over a longer duration. The
vmstat command is quite useful for this.
In the example in Listing 1, we are using the
vmstat command to look at our resources every 45 seconds 10 times. The
-S switch shows our data in a table and the
-M switch shows the output in megabytes to make it easier to read. As you can see, something is consuming our free memory, but we are not yet swapping in this example.
[root@localhost ~]# vmstat -SM 45 10 procs -----------memory-------- ---swap-- -----io-- --system-- ----cpu--------- r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 1 0 0 221 125 42 0 0 0 0 70 4 0 0 100 0 0 2 0 0 192 133 43 0 0 192 78 432 1809 1 15 81 2 0 2 1 0 85 161 43 0 0 624 418 1456 8407 7 73 0 21 0 0 0 0 65 168 43 0 0 158 237 648 5655 3 28 65 4 0 3 0 0 64 168 43 0 0 0 2 1115 13178 9 69 22 0 0 7 0 0 60 168 43 0 0 0 5 1319 15509 13 87 0 0 0 4 0 0 60 168 43 0 0 0 1 1387 15613 14 86 0 0 0 7 0 0 61 168 43 0 0 0 0 1375 15574 14 86 0 0 0 2 0 0 64 168 43 0 0 0 0 1355 15722 13 87 0 0 0 0 0 0 71 168 43 0 0 0 6 215 1895 1 8 91 0 0
The output of
vmstat can be redirected to a file using the following command. We can even adjust the duration and the number of times in order to monitor longer. While the command is running, we can look at the output file at any time to see the results.
In the following example, we are looking at memory every 120 seconds 1000 times. The
& at the end of the line allows us to run this as a process and regain our terminal.
vmstat -SM 120 1000 > memoryusage.out &
For reference, Listing 2 shows a section from the
vmstat man page that provides additional information about the output the command provides. This is the memory-related information only; the command provides information about both disk I/O and CPU usage as well.
Memory swpd: the amount of virtual memory used. free: the amount of idle memory. buff: the amount of memory used as buffers. cache: the amount of memory used as cache. inact: the amount of inactive memory. (-a option) active: the amount of active memory. (-a option) Swap si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (/s). so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (/s).
There are a number of other tools available for monitoring memory and system performance for investigating issues of this nature. Tools such as
sar (System Activity Reporter) and
dtrace (Dynamic Tracing) are quite useful for collecting specific data about system performance over time. For even more visibility, the
dtrace stability and data stability probes even have a trigger for OOM conditions that will fire if the kernel kills a process due to an OOM condition. More information about
sar is included in the "See Also" section of this article.
There are several things that might cause an OOM event other than the system running out of RAM and available swap space due to the workload. The kernel might not be able to utilize swap space optimally due to the type of workload on the system. Applications that utilize
mlock() or HugePages have memory that can't be swapped to disk when the system starts to run low on physical memory. Kernel data structures can also take up too much space exhausting memory on the system and causing an OOM situation. Many NUMA architecture–based systems can experience OOM conditions because of one node running out of memory triggering an OOM in the kernel while plenty of memory is left in the remaining nodes. More information about OOM conditions on machines that have the NUMA architecture can be found in the "See Also" section of this article.
The OOM killer on Linux has several configuration options that allow developers some choice as to the behavior the system will exhibit when it is faced with an out-of-memory condition. These settings and choices vary depending on the environment and applications that the system has configured on it.
Note: It's suggested that testing and tuning be performed in a development environment before making changes on important production systems.
In some environments, when a system runs a single critical task, rebooting when a system runs into an OOM condition might be a viable option to return the system back to operational status quickly without administrator intervention. While not an optimal approach, the logic behind this is that if our application is unable to operate due to being killed by the OOM killer, then a reboot of the system will restore the application if it starts with the system at boot time. If the application is manually started by an administrator, this option is not beneficial.
The following settings will cause the system to panic and reboot in an out-of-memory condition. The
sysctl commands will set this in real time, and appending the settings to
sysctl.conf will allow these settings to survive reboots. The
kernel.panic is the number of seconds before the system should be rebooted. This setting should be adjusted to meet the needs of your environment.
sysctl vm.panic_on_oom=1 sysctl kernel.panic=X echo "vm.panic_on_oom=1" >> /etc/sysctl.conf echo "kernel.panic=X" >> /etc/sysctl.conf
We can also tune the way that the OOM killer handles OOM conditions with certain processes. Take, for example, our
oracle process 2592 that was killed earlier. If we want to make our
oracle process less likely to be killed by the OOM killer, we can do the following.
echo -15 > /proc/2592/oom_adj
We can make the OOM killer more likely to kill our
oracle process by doing the following.
echo 10 > /proc/2592/oom_adj
If we want to exclude our
oracle process from the OOM killer, we can do the following, which will exclude it completely from the OOM killer. It is important to note that this might cause unexpected behavior depending on the resources and configuration of the system. If the kernel is unable to kill a process using a large amount of memory, it will move onto other available processes. Some of those processes might be important operating system processes that ultimately might cause the system to go down.
echo -17 > /proc/2592/oom_adj
We can set valid ranges for
+15, and a setting of
-17 exempts a process entirely from the OOM killer. The higher the number, the more likely our process will be selected for termination if the system encounters an OOM condition. The contents of
/proc/2592/oom_score can also be viewed to determine how likely a process is to be killed by the OOM killer. A score of
0 is an indication that our process is exempt from the OOM killer. The higher the OOM score, the more likely a process will be killed in an OOM condition.
The OOM killer can be completely disabled with the following command. This is not recommended for production environments, because if an out-of-memory condition does present itself, there could be unexpected behavior depending on the available system resources and configuration. This unexpected behavior could be anything from a kernel panic to a hang depending on the resources available to the kernel at the time of the OOM condition.
sysctl vm.overcommit_memory=2 echo "vm.overcommit_memory=2" >> /etc/sysctl.conf
For some environments, these configuration options are not optimal and further tuning and adjustments might be needed. Configuring HugePages for your kernel can assist with OOM issues depending on the needs of the applications running on the system.
Here are some additional resources about HugePages,
sar, and OOM for NUMA architectures:
Robert Chase is a member of the Oracle Linux product management team. He has been involved with Linux and open source software since 1996. He has worked with systems as small as embedded devices and with large supercomputer-class hardware.
|Revision 1.0, 02/19/2013|