Oracle NoSQL Database Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)


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  • General

    • What is the difference between Community Edition (CE) and Enterprise Edition (EE)?

        Further details can be found here.

    • Does NoSQL work with OpenJDK?

      Yes, Oracle NoSQL is certified with OpenJDK. See the Release Notes here.

    • What are all these ports? When do I use which one?

      A store deployment consists of many components, each running in its own process, which communicate with each other. The system administrator must define the following TCP/IP ports for each type of process on each Storage Node (SN).

      • The main port on each SN is the "registry port", which is owned by the Storage Node Agent (SNA). This is the port that is named by the "-port" argument to the java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig command. It is also used in the deploy-sn plan during configuration. The documentation examples use 5000 as the registry port. Also, the java -jar kvstore.jar kvlite command uses port 5000 as a default value.
      • Each Admin process must have a port (the "Admin Console port") on which it listens for HTTP connections (prior to 4.3). This is specified in the "-admin" argument to the java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig command, and in the deploy-admin plan during configuration (prior to 4.3).

        The documentation examples use 5001.

      • Each SN must be given a range of ports (the "HA Range") to be used by any Replication Nodes and Admin services hosted within the SN for the replication of persistent data. The SNA manages this allotment of ports, reserves one for an Admin service, and uses the rest to allocate one per RN. The range should be sized so it is equal to the maximum number of RNs that this SN may ever host, plus 1.

      You should use the registry port in the following situations:

      • any use of the admin Command Line Interface (the java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin command), including initial configuration of the store. Note that although you're ultimately communicating with an Admin process, it is the Registry Port, not the Admin Console port (prior to 4.3), that you use in this situation.
      • as part of the helperHostPort argument to the KVStoreConfig constructor in application code that will read/write to the store.
      • as the value passed on the command line with "-port", to invoke utilities such as Load, Ping, and KVLite.
      • if JMX monitoring is enabled, as the port number for the JMX service.

      Similarly with example programs such as HelloBigDataWorld and SchemaExample.

      You should use the Admin Console port(prior to 4.3) in the target URL for the admin web UI:


      Generally you can specify a port on any SN that hosts a component of the type you are trying to reach, and if necessary the system will redirect your request automatically and transparently. In the case of the Admin Console web UI (prior to 4.3), and the java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin command, this works as long as you specify an SN that is hosting an admin process.

      Other than during configuration of an SN, there is normally no need to refer directly to ports in the HA Range, although it is certainly helpful to understand the HA Range when examining Ping results and perusing system log files.

    • How do I restrict the ports used by NoSQL DB?

      It is sometimes necessary for deployments to constrain a store to a limited set of ports, usually for security or data center policy reasons. There are 2 port ranges that can be specified on a Storage Node to restrict use to those ports:

      • the haPortRange parameter, specified in makebootconfig using -harange <start,end>. This is is used for replication when replication factor is >1, and must contain enough ports to satisfy the capacity of the storage node plus one.
      • the servicePortRange parameter, specified in makebootconfig using -servicerange <start,end>. This range is used for internal (administrative) server to server, low-bandwidth communication and is based on the number of services in each process hosted by a storage node, including the storage node agent process itself. This parameter is optional and if not specified anonymous ports will be used.

      The ranges above are inclusive.

      The size of the haPortRange is described above. The servicePortRange sizing is as follows:

      • 3 ports for the Storage Node process
      • 3 * capacity for replication nodes (each replication node consumes 3 ports)
      • 2 if the storage node is hosting an admin process

      Using the information above, a storage node with capacity 2 and hosting an admin would need a range of size 3 + (2 * 3) + 2 = 11. The storage node will enforce the minimum size based on this formula. It is recommended that the range be slightly oversized.

    • How do I specify the network interface used by NoSQL DB?

      The -hostname parameter to makebootconfig influences the network interface used by each Storage Node. It's possible to use the optional -hahost flag for makebootconfig to set the haHostname Storage Node parameter. This is used to specify an additional network interface for the server-server communication channels that carry the most traffic. -hahost defaults to the same value as -hostname.

    • How does NoSQL DB budget memory?

      The Replication Node manages the data in a NoSQL DB store and is the main consumer of memory. The Java heap and cache size used by the Replication Node can be important performance factors. By default, the Replication Node heap and cache are calculated by NoSQL DB based on the amount of memory available to the Storage Node.

      We recommend that you specify the available memory for a Storage Node using the -memory_mb flag for makebootconfig, or the memory_mb Storage Node parameter. If you do not define memory_mb, it will default to the memory available on the node. NoSQL DB will then use 85% of memory_mb as the heap for the Replication Node processes hosted by that Storage Node. If the Storage Node hosts more than one Replication Node, the memory will be divided evenly between all RNs. If the number of Replication Nodes on a Storage Node changes, the per-RN memory will be recalculated dynamically. The percentage used for heap is controlled by the rnHeapPercent Storage Node parameter. You can choose to override the default value of 85%.

      Each Replication Node uses a cache, and the size of that cache defaults to 70% of the Replication Node heap. You can override the 70% default by setting the rnCachePercent Replication Node parameter.

      The Replication Node heap can also be specified directly by setting the -Xmx in the Replication Node javaMiscParams parameter. Likewise, the Replication Node cache can be set directly with the cacheSize Replication Node parameter. While that's possible, it's advisable to use the Storage Node memory_mb setting.

      As an example, suppose you specify that a Storage Node may use 3000 MB of memory, by setting memory_mb to 3000. If that Storage Node hosts two Replication Nodes, the heap for each RN will be (3000 * .85)/2 = 1275MB. Each RN cache will be (1275 * .70) = 892MB.

    • How many Admin services should I deploy?

      NoSQL DB Administrative processes are replicated in order to enhance reliability. It's important to continue to have administrative functionality available even in the event of node failure, so that you can continue to monitor, troubleshoot, and repair problems.

      Each Admin service is created and added to NoSQL DB through the deploy-admin plan. Since the Admin persists metadata into a replicated store, the information provided in the Admin Guide's "Identify your Replication Factor" section also applies to the number of Admin services that should be deployed. For durability and availability, we strongly suggest that you deploy at least three Admin services. If your deployment has only one or two Admin services, and one service goes down, you will be unable to execute many types of administrative commands.

      If you have at least three Admin services running, you can easily move one of them from one Storage Node to another by first deploying a fourth Admin service on the target Storage Node, and then eliminating one of the original three using the remove-admin plan.

    • Should I ever create multiple Storage Nodes on the same node?

      We strongly recommend that Storage Nodes (SNs) be allocated one per node in the cluster for availability and performance reasons. If you believe that a given node has the I/O and CPU resources to host multiple Replication Nodes, the Storage Node's capacity parameter can be set to a value greater than one, and the system will know that multiple RNs may be hosted at this SN. This way, the system can:

      • ensure that each Replication Node in a shard is hosted on a different Storage Node, reducing a shard's vulnerability to failure
      • dynamically divide up memory and other hardware resources among the Replication Nodes
      • ensure that the master Replication Nodes, which are the ones which service write operations in a store, are distributed evenly among the Storage Nodes both at startup, and after any failovers.

      If more than one SN is hosted on the same node, multiple SNs are lost if that node fails, and data may become inaccessible.

      You can set the capacity parameter for a Storage Node several ways:

      • when using the makebootconfig command
      • with the change-policy command
      • with the plan change-params commmand.

      In very limited situations, such as for early prototyping and experimentation, it can be useful to create multiple SNs on the same node.

      On a single machine a Storage Node is uniquely identified by its root directory (KVROOT) plus a configuration file name, which defaults to "config.xml." This means you can create multiple SNs this ways:

      Create a unique KVROOT for each SN. Usually, these would be on different nodes, but it's also possible to have them on a single node. For example, if you decide to put all SNs in the directory /var/kv/stores you might create and start more than one this way:

      							mkdir /var/kv/stores/root1 mkdir /var/kv/stores/root2 mkdir /var/kv/stores/root3 java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig -root /var/kv/stores/root1 -host fooHost -port 5000 -admin 5001 -harange 5005,5010 -capacity 1 java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig -root /var/kv/stores/root2 -host fooHost -port 5020 -harange 5025,5030 -capacity 1 java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig -root /var/kv/stores/root3 -host fooHost -port 5040 -harange 5045,5050 -capacity 1 java -jar kvstore.jar start -root /var/kv/stores/root1 java -jar kvstore.jar start -root /var/kv/stores/root2 java -jar kvstore.jar start -root /var/kv/stores/root3 
    • How do I script Oracle NoSQL Database configuration?

      You may find that you want to build the same NoSQL DB configuration repeatedly for testing purposes. The Admin CLI commands can be scripted in several ways.

      Many uses of the Admin CLI are simple commands, such as java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig to initially configure a StorageNode, shown above. These are as amenable to scripting as any other UNIX commands and will not be discussed further here.

      The interactive commands available in java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin, among which are those used to create and execute plans, can be scripted in two ways. You can create a file containing the sequence of commands that you want to run, and run them in a batch using java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin load -file <script>.

      For example, a script file named deploy.kvs could contain commands such as the following:

      							 configure -name mystore plan deploy-zone -name boston -rf 3 plan deploy-sn -dcname boston -host localhost -port 5000 -wait plan deploy-admin -sn sn1 -port 5001 -wait (port argument is applicable prior to 4.3. only) 

      You could execute this script by issuing the command

      							 java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin -host localhost -port 5000 load -file deploy.kvs 

      Another way to script commands is to run individual CLI commands as separate shell command lines. Trailing arguments in this command line are considered to be a single CLI command.

      This usage mode lets you use features of a more capable scripting language, such as a UNIX shell, and provides more flexibility for integrating NoSQL DB commands with other commands that are not available in the the interactive java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin environment.

      The same sequence of commands as those from the example above could be couched in a shell script this way:

      							 #!/bin/sh HOST=localhost PORT=5000 HTTPPORT=5001 KVADMIN="java -jar lib/kvstore.jar runadmin -host $HOST -port $PORT" # Each CLI command that follows "$KVADMIN" is executed in a new invocation of runAdmin $KVADMIN configure -name mystore $KVADMIN plan deploy-datacenter -name boston -rf 3 -wait $KVADMIN plan deploy-sn -dcname boston -host localhost -port $PORT -wait $KVADMIN plan deploy-admin -sn sn1 -port $HTTPPORT -wait 
    • How do I load/migrate data to Oracle NoSQL Database table?

      Using Oracle NoSQL Database Migrator

      Oracle NoSQL Database Migrator is a tool that enables you to migrate Oracle NoSQL tables from one data source to another. This tool can operate on tables in Oracle NoSQL Database Cloud Service and Oracle NoSQL Database on-premises and AWS S3. The Migrator tool supports several different data formats and physical media types. Supported data formats are JSON, Parquet, MongoDB-formatted JSON, and DynamoDB-formatted JSON. Supported physical media types are files, OCI Object Storage, Oracle NoSQL Database on-premises, Oracle NoSQL Database Cloud Service, and AWS S3.

    • Does NoSQL Database Interact With Oracle Database?

      NoSQL Database supports retrieving records through the Oracle Database External Table functions. This makes it possible to perform some queries from Oracle Database and retrieve records from NoSQL Database. For more information, refer to: Accessing Oracle NoSQL Database with Oracle External Tables Cookbook

    • How do I model my persistent data for an Oracle NoSQL Database application?

      A critical part of the application development process is the task of modeling your data.

      Proper modeling of your data is crucial to application performance, extensibility, application correctness, and finally, the ability for your application to support rich user experiences.

      The Oracle NoSQL Database gives the data modeler a large range of flexibility with respect to modeling application data. Understanding the tradeoffs associated with each level of flexibility is extremely useful in making wise data modeling decisions.

      Further details can be found here.

  • API

    • What is and what are the benefits of KV Local?

      KVLocal is an embedded Oracle NoSQL Database that can be used in data-rich applications to process and present live data from large datasets. KVLocal provides a single-node store that is not replicated.

      It runs as a separate child process in the application JVM and requires minimal administration. KVLocal is a robust database and handles failures efficiently. You can start and stop KVLocal using APIs.

      KVLocal provides the ability to run a single instance of Oracle NoSQL Database by including kvstore.jar in the application's classpath, starting a JVM, and calling an API to initialize the database.

    • What kind of indexes are supported by NoSQL ?

      Oracle NoSQL Database supports the following index types:
       -  Simple Indexes: An index is a simple one if it does not index any arrays or maps
       -  Multi-Key Indexes: Multikey indexes are used to index all the elements/entries of one or more arrays or maps in each row of a table.
       -  JSON Data Indexes: An index is a json index if it indexes at least one field that is contained inside json data.
       -  GeoJson Data Indexes: An index that includes a path to geometry objects. It is also called a geometry index.
       -  Indexes on FunctionsYou can create indexes on the values of one or more SQL built-in functions. Oracle NoSQL Database supports also integration with Elastic Search for   Full Text Search
       -  Full Text Indexes: Full Text Search provides the capability to identify natural-language documents that satisfy a query, and optionally to sort them by relevance to the query. Available only in on-premise version.

    • What are the benefits of multi-region tables in an Oracle NoSQL database?

      Oracle NoSQL Database applications read and write data by performing network requests against an Oracle NoSQL Database data store. Sometimes, organizations may need to set up multiple KVStores to maintain their NoSQL data. These KVStore clusters may even be geographically distributed. Oracle NoSQL Database multi-region architecture enables you to create tables in multiple KVStore clusters and maintain consistent data across these clusters.

      Suppose you want to collect and maintain similar data across multiple regions. You need a mechanism to create tables that can span across multiple regions and keep themselves updated with the inputs from all the participating regions. You can achieve these using Multi-Region tables. A Multi-Region table or MR table is a global logical table that is stored and maintained in different regions or installations. It is a read-anywhere and write-anywhere table that lives in multiple regions.

    • What kind of Conflict Detection and Resolution is supported by NoSQL Multi-Region Table?

      Oracle NoSQL supports Latest Write. An innovative way to address the conflict detection and resolution matter is to ensure that conflicts never happen.

      Oracle NoSQL Database has introduced a new CRDT type (Conflict-free replicated data type) for use with multi-region tables. CRDTs are a family of replicated data types with a common set of properties that enable operations performed on them to always converge to a correct and consistent common state among all replicas.

      You can create a multi-region table and declare fields in a JSON column as MR_COUNTER data type.

    • Is there a way to know physical properties for a row?

      Oracle NoSQL database supports Function on Rows
      — The modification_time function allows you to see the most recent modification time (in UTC) of a row
      — The shard function allows you to retrieve the shard ID in which a given row(s) of data is stored
      — The partition function allows you to see the partition id in which a given row(s) of data is stored.
      — The row_storage_size function allows you to see the persistent storage size (in bytes) used by the given row(s) of data
      — The index_storage_size function allows you to see the persistent storage size (in bytes) used by the index for the given row(s) of data

    • Why do I need hierarchical tables in an Oracle NoSQL database?

      All NoSQL databases have a fundamental unit of storage which is a rich structure of closely related data: for key-value stores it's the value, for document stores it's the document, and for column-family stores it's the column family. In Design terms, this group of data is an aggregate.

      Oracle NoSQL database supports complex datatypes (array, maps, …) you may think that for each parent row, its matching child rows could be stored in the parent row itself inside an array or a map. However, doing so could lead to very large parent rows, resulting in bad performance. This is especially true given the append-only architecture of the NoSQL database store, which implies that a new version of the whole row is created every time the row is updated (more details)

    • What are the benefits of hierarchical tables in an Oracle NoSQL database?

      Hierarchical tables in an Oracle NoSQL database are:

      — Very efficient for write-heavy workloads.
      More flexible for fine-grained authorization. Authorization is permission given to a user to access a resource. In a fine-grained authorization, the access rights given to a user for a resource may vary by conditions at run-time. In a hierarchical setup, access rights given to the parent table might be different from the access rights given to the child table, and so it is more flexible.

    • What are the differences between the syntax NESTED TABLES and LEFT [OUTER] JOIN?

      There are two ways by which you can join tables in the same hierarchy in an Oracle NoSQL database.

      Nested Tables Left Outer Join
      Queries multiple tables in the same hierarchy Queries multiple tables in the same hierarchy
      Not an ANSI-SQL Standard ANSI-SQL Standard
      Supports sibling tables join Does not support sibling table joins
    • How to efficiently delete a subtree of keys using multiple major keys

      The KVStore.multiDelete() methods can delete entire subtrees, but only on one (fully-specified) major key at a time.

      In order to delete larger subtrees, rooted higher up within the major-key portion of the hierarchy, you can use a storeKeysIterator to find each full major key to be deleted, and then call multiDelete() on each one.

      If the storeKeysIterator were allowed to finish, it would iterate over all keys in the desired subtree range, including minor keys within each major key. Therefore, the trick is to take just the first result key from the iterator, extract the major key portion for the call to multiDelete(), and then abandon the iterator and start over with a new one; rather than cycling all the way through a single iterator.

      This is illustrated in the following sample code.

      Key partialKey = ...; // major key prefix /* * Since we never take more than one key per iterator, a larger * batch size would be a waste. */ final int batchSize = 1; for (;;) { Iterator<Key> i = kv.storeKeysIterator (Direction.UNORDERED, batchSize, partialKey, null, Depth.DESCENDANTS_ONLY); if (!i.hasNext()) { break; } Key descendant = Key.createKey(; kv.multiDelete(descendant, null, Depth.PARENT_AND_DESCENDANTS); }

    • Best practices when generating sequence values

      An INTEGER, LONG, or NUMBER column in a table can be defined as an identity column. The system can automatically generate values for the identity column using a sequence generator. For more details see Sequence Generator.

      A universally unique identifier (UUID) is a 128-bit number used to identify information in computer systems. In Oracle NoSQL, UUID values are represented by the UUID data type. This UUID column can be defined as GENERATED BY DEFAULT. The system then automatically generates a value for the UUID column if you do not supply a value for it.

    • Runtime versus checked exceptions

      Most of the exceptions defined in the client API are runtime exceptions. Are there any design policies or reasons we don't use checked exceptions?

      Checked exceptions are only appropriate when they must always be handled by the immediate caller because they are in a sense a different type of return value. These are called "contingencies". For example, oracle.kv.OperationExecutionException contains information about the return values of the operations in a multi-operation request. Contingency exceptions are checked exceptions, in order to require the caller to handle them explicitly, just as the caller would handle a return value.

      Other exceptions, called "faults", are typically the result of a problem that cannot be handled directly by the caller, and are normally caused by an unusual event. They may cause operation retries, but are often handled by higher levels (not the immediate caller). Because they are not handled by the immediate caller, they are runtime exceptions. This avoids cluttering all methods of the client application with throws declarations for exceptions that are not the concern of these methods.

      Currently, the only contingency (checked) exception in NoSQL DB is the OperationExecutionException and other exceptions are fault (runtime) exceptions. Each exception extends either oracle.kv.FaultException or oracle.kv.ContingencyException to make this characteristic clear.

      Some general information on contingency and fault exceptions is explained here: here

      Note in that in recent times (the last several years), runtime exceptions are preferred by most programmers and most programming languages that were designed recently do not have the capability for checked exceptions. So the current trend is toward runtime exceptions. Of course, not all programmers or programming language designers agree on this topic. NoSQL DB reserves the option of adding additional contingency exceptions, if appropriate.

  • Troubleshooting

    • How do I fix filterCheck error from using Java SE Development Kit 8, Update 121 (JDK 8u121)?

      There is a support note from Oracle on this topic. View it at:

    • How do I fix error Cannot Connect to proxy at port encountered when using JavaScript Driver?

      - For CE distribution, provide the file when starting the proxy manually. For example: java -cp <path>/kvclient.jar:<path>/kvproxy.jar:<path>oraclepki.jar oracle.kv.proxy.KVProxy -helper-hosts <hostname>:<port> -store <storename> -username admin -security <path>/

      - EE distribution uses wallet, so, in addition to setting oraclepki.jar in the class path, specify the file when starting the proxy manually. For example: java -cp <path>/kvclient.jar:<path>/kvproxy.jar:<path>oraclepki.jar oracle.kv.proxy.KVProxy -helper-hosts <hostname>:<port> -store <storename> -username admin -security <path>/

    • Which JVMs can I use to run Oracle NoSQL Database?

      The Oracle NoSQL Database server is compatible with Java SE 11. Both the client and server require at least Java SE 11 and should work with more recent Java SE versions. In particular, the client and server have been tested and certified against Oracle Java SE 21.0.2, which is a long-term support (LTS) release, and OpenJDK 21.0.2. We encourage you to upgrade to Java SE 21 to take advantage of the latest bug fixes and performance improvements.

      See the Release Notes here.

    • Why am I seeing an UnsupportedClassVersionError exception?

      Oracle NoSQL Database Release 1 and 2 require a Java SE 6 or later Java runtime. Release 3 requires Java SE 7 or later. Oracle NoSQL Datatabase Release 4 requires Java SE 8 or later. If you see an error message like the following, you are probably trying to run it with an earlier version of Java.

      Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: Bad version number in .class file


      Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: oracle/kv/impl/util/KVStoreMain : Unsupported major.minor version 51.0

    • Getting feedback while an administrative plan is running

      There are several ways to track the progress of an administrative command.

      • The show plan -id <id> will display the latest status of the command.

      • The show topology command will display the current layout of the store, and the NoSQL DB services that currently exist.

      • The Topology tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) will refresh as NoSQL DB services are created and brought online.

      • You can issue the verify command via the Topology tab (prior to 4.3) or the Admin CLI concurrently as plans are executing. The verify will provide service status information as services come up.

      • You can follow the storewide log via the Logs tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) or the CLI's logtail command.

    • Where to find error information

      Error information for administrative plans is available as the plan executes and finishes. Errors are reported in the plan history each time an attempt to run the plan fails. The plan history can be seen via the command line interface KVAdmin (also known as "java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin" or simply "the CLI") show plan -id <id> command, or in the Plans And Configuration tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3). Using the -verbose flag will add more detail.

      Other problems may occur asynchronously. You can learn about unexpected failures, service downtime, and performance issues through the critical events display in the Logs tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3), or through the CLI's show events command. Events come with a time stamp, and the description may contain enough information to diagnose the issue. In other cases, more context may be needed, and the administrator may want to see what else happened around that time.

      The store wide log consolidates logging output from all services. Browsing this file may give the administrator a more complete view of activity during the problem period. It can be viewed via the Logs tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) or the CLI's logtail command, or by directly viewing the <storename>_N.log file in the <KVHOME>/<storename>/log directory. It's also possible to download the store wide log file using the Logs tab of the Admin Console.

    • What is the format of the .log files?

      The .log files in the KVROOT/<store_name>?log directory contain trace messages from each NoSQL DB component. Each line is prefixed with the date of the message, its severity, and the name of the component which issued it. For example:

      10-01-11 08:39:43:548 UTC INFO [admin1] Initializing Admin for store: kvstore

      The line format is MM-dd-yy HH:mm:ss:SSS <java.util.logging.Level> [Component name] message. When looking for more context for events at a given time, use the timestamp and component name to narrow down the section of log to peruse. Serious exceptions are logged with the SEVERE log level, as well as being available in the Admin Console and CLI (java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin) show events command.

    • What is the format of the .perf files?

      The administrative service collects server side throughput and latency statistics on a per-replication node basis. These statistics can be seen via the Admin Console's topology tab (prior to 4.3) , the command line interface (CLI) show perf command, and in the <storename>.perf files available in the master Admin service's KVROOT log directory. The .perf files can also be located and downloaded via the Admin Console.

      Throughput and latency are calculated for an interval of time determined by the statsInterval replication node parameter, which defaults to 60 seconds. Each line of the .perf file is for a single stats interval of a single replication node. Each line also applies to a single optype category.

      The two optypes, Single and Multi, are used to understand the performance characteristics of different data operations. Some client API data operations pertain to a single data record, while others pertain to one or multiple records. For example, the KVStore.get() method fetches a single data record, while KVStore.multiGet() fetches one or more records. All single record operations are aggregated and recorded as optype Single, while all multi record operations are reported as optype Multi.

      As of NoSQL 2.0.25, latency information is calculated per request. Since multi operations can amortize the per-record overhead over many records, they can be significantly more efficient than single record operations. Statistics are kept per optype to help illuminate that difference.

      For example, if the application issues KVStore.get(), KVStore.put(), KVStore.putIfVersion() and KVStore.multiGet() operations in one interval, all the multiGets are recorded as one Multi statistic line, and all the other operations are recorded together as one Single statistic line.

      The following columns are present on each line:

      Resource: the name of the replication node Time: the start of the stats interval, formatted as MM/HH/YY hh:mm:ss OpType: Single or Multi

      Interval performance stats:

      Total Ops: number of data records for that optype executed during the stats interval PerSec: number of data records per second for that interval Total Req: For Single optypes, the number of operations and the number of requests is the same for each interval. For Multi optypes, the number of operations may be equal or greater than the number of requests, because each request may return multiple records. Min: minimum request latency, in milliseconds for that interval Max: maximum request latency, in milliseconds for that interval Avg: average request latency, in milliseconds for that interval 95th: latency of requests in the 95th percentile, for that interval 99th: latency of requests in the 99th percentile, for that interval

      Cumulative performance stats:

      Total Ops: number of operations of that optype executed during the lifetime of the replication node process. Cumulative values are reset any time the replication node restarts PerSec: number of operations per second for the RN process lifetime Total Req: For Single optypes, the number of operations and the number of requests is the same. For Multi optypes, the number of operations may be equal or greater than the number of requests, because each request may return multiple records. Min: minimum latency, in milliseconds for the RN process lifetime Max: maximum latency, in milliseconds for the RN process lifetime Avg: average latency, in milliseconds for the RN process lifetime 95th: latency of operations in the 95th percentile, for the RN process lifetime 99th: latency of operations in the 99th percentile, for the RN process lifetime

    • What are the NoSQL DB service states?

      There are three types of NoSQL DB services: Admin, Storage Node, and Replication Node. Each service has a status that can be seen via the Topology tab in the Admin Console (prior to 4.3), the show topology command in the CLI (java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin), or java -jar kvstore.jar ping.

      The status values are:


      Service is coming up


      Service is running normally


      Service is stopping. This may take some time. For example, a Replication Node may be performing a checkpoint, or a Storage Node may be shutting down managed services


      The service is waiting for commands or acknowledgements from other services during its start up processing. If it is a Storage Node, it is waiting for the initial deploy-SN command. Other services should transition out of this phase without any administrative intervention from the user


      An intentional, clean shutdown


      Service is in an error state and restart will be attempted


      Service is in an error state and will not be automatically restarted. Administrative intervention from the user is required


      Service is not reachable by the Admin. If the status was seen via a command issued by the Admin, this state may mask a STOPPED or ERROR state

      A healthy service begins in STARTING. It may transition to WAITING_FOR_DEPLOY for a short period before going on to RUNNING. ERROR_RESTARTING and ERROR_NO_RESTART indicate that there has been a problem that should be investigated. An UNREACHABLE service may only be in that state temporarily, although if that state persists, the service may be truly in an ERROR_RESTARTING or ERROR_NO_RESTART state.

      Note that the Topology tab only shows abnormal service statuses. Service statuses for healthy components that are RUNNING are left blank.

    • Why is my plan still running after an error has been reported?

      Administrative plans may invoke remote services which execute asynchronously. Each plan step, or task, can run for a maximum amount of time which is configured by the task_timeout parameter, which defaults to 5 minutes. The task ends when it determines a success or error outcome, or if the timeout period is exceeded.

      The asynchronous remote services may encounter errors which are reported directly back to the Admin Console and are displayed in a error dialog before the task has determined the outcome. Because of that, the user may learn of the error while the Admin service still considers the plan to be RUNNING and active. The plan will eventually see the error and will transition to an ERROR state.

    • I configured my Storage Node registry port incorrectly

      If you have specified an invalid value for a Storage Node (SN) registry port, the Storage Node Agent will not start up properly. You'll be unable to see the SNA through the jps -m command, and it will not respond to the java -jar kvstore.jar ping command. The snaboot_0.log file in the SN's root directory will display error information. For example, if the registry port was already in use, the log might show:

      10-03-11 22:47:59:525 EDT SEVERE [snaService] Failed to start SNA: Port already in use: 1000; nested exception is: Permission denied

      You should delete the KVROOT directory and repeat the makebootconfig installation steps

    • I configured my Storage Node HA port range incorrectly

      If you have specified invalid values for the HA Port Range (described above in the FAQ), you will be unable to deploy a Replication Node (RN) or a secondary Administration process (Admin) on this SN. The problem will be discovered when you first attempt to deploy a store or a Admin Replica on that faulty SN. You will see these indications that the RN did not come up on this Storage Node:

      • The Admin Console (prior to 4.3) will display an error dialog that warns that this RN is in the ERROR_RESTARTING state. The Topology tab will also show this state in red, and after a number of retries, will indicate that the RN is in ERROR_NO_RESTART..

      • The plan will go into ERROR state, and its detailed history, available by clicking on the plan in the Plans and Configuration tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) or through the java -jar kvstore.jar runadmin "show plan <planId>" command, will show an error message like this:

        Attempt 1 state: ERROR start time: 10-03-11 22:06:12 end time: 10-03-11 22:08:12 DeployOneRepNode of rg1-rn3 on sn3/farley:5200 [RUNNING] failed. .... Failed to attach to RepNodeService for rg1-rn3, see log, /KVRT3/<storename>/log/rg1-rn3*.log, on host farley for more information.

      • The critical events mechanism, accessible via the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) or CLI will show an alert that contains the same error information from the plan history.

      • An examination of the specified .log file or the storewide log displayed in the Log tab of the Admin Console (prior to 4.3) will show a specific error message, such as:

        [rg1-rn3] Process exiting java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Port number 1 is invalid because the port must be outside the range of "well known" ports

      The misconfiguration may be addressed with these steps. Some steps must be executed on the physical node which hosts the NoSQL DB Storage Node, while others can be done from any node which can access the Admin Console or Admin CLI.

      1. Using the Admin Console or Admin CLI, cancel the deploy-store or deploy-admin plan which ran afoul of the misconfiguration.
      2. On the SN node, kill the existing, misconfigured StorageNodeAgentImpl process and all its ManagedProcesses. You can distinguish them from other processes because they will have the parameter "-root <KVROOT>"
      3. On the SN node, remove all files from the KVROOT directory.
      4. On the SN node, recreate the storage node bootstrap configuration file in the KVROOT directory using the java -jar kvstore.jar makebootconfig command.
      5. On the SN node, restart the storage node using java -jar kvstore.jar start.
      6. Using the Admin Console or Admin CLI, re-deploy the storage node using the deploy-sn plan.

      You have now returned to the same point where you previously experienced the error, and you can create and execute a deploy-store or deploy-admin plan which uses the same parameters as the initial attempt.

    • thrown during configuration

      Some users have seen during configuration. Even though it is possible to ping (using the Unix or Windows CLI ping command, not the Oracle NoSQL Database "ping" command) and ssh to the target machine, configuring Oracle NoSQL Database may still fail. A typical exception might look like this:

      [nosql@nosql0 kv-1.2.123]$ java -jar ./lib/kvstore-1.2.123.jar ping -port 5000
      Exception in thread "main" java.rmi.ConnectIOException: Exception creating
      connection to:; nested exception is: No route to host
      at sun.rmi.transport.tcp.TCPEndpoint.newSocket(
      at sun.rmi.transport.tcp.TCPChannel.createConnection(
      at sun.rmi.transport.tcp.TCPChannel.newConnection(
      at sun.rmi.server.UnicastRef.newCall(
      at sun.rmi.registry.RegistryImpl_Stub.list(Unknown Source)
      at oracle.kv.util.Ping.getTopology(
      at oracle.kv.util.Ping.main(
      at oracle.kv.impl.util.KVStoreMain$
      at oracle.kv.impl.util.KVStoreMain.main(
      Caused by: No route to host
      at Method)
      at sun.rmi.transport.proxy.RMIDirectSocketFactory.createSocket
      at sun.rmi.transport.proxy.RMIMasterSocketFactory.createSocket
      at sun.rmi.transport.tcp.TCPEndpoint.newSocket(
      ... 8 more
      [nosql@nosql0 kv-1.2.123]$

      Generally, this has been due to iptables running on one or more of the machines being used. To check your iptables settings, you can do iptables -L -n. This might produce output like this:

      [root@nosql1 init.d]# iptables -L -n Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination ACCEPT all -- state RELATED, ESTABLISHED ACCEPT icmp -- ACCEPT all -- ACCEPT tcp -- state NEW tcp dpt:22 REJECT all -- reject-with icmp-host-prohibited Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination REJECT all -- reject-with icmp-host-prohibited Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination [root@nosql1 init.d]#

      To get around this problem, you should create rules that allow communication over the ports that you have configured for Oracle NoSQL Database. As a simple workaround to test whether iptables is the cause, you can shutdown iptables temporarily (but note that this will disable your firewall rules which is a potential security issue).

      Thanks to Johan Louwers for writing this up.

    • What does java.rmi.ConnectException: Connection refused to host mean?

      The show plan -id <id> command displays plan status and any errors that may have occurred. If you see this exception listed in the error section, it means that the Admin service was unable to reach one of the NoSQL DB components while it was trying to execute a command.

      The first step is check the error information displayed from the show plan -id <id> command to look at the error displayed by the component that failed to start. This problem is most often caused by a Replication Node that could not be started. Some common issues are insufficient memory for the Replication Node process, a mistyped custom JVM configuration, or a port that was already in use.

      If this first step does not show the problem, the next step is check on the overall status of the store. One way to do that is to use the show topology command, followed by the verify command. The show topology command will display the layout of the store, while verify will check the status of each component. A component that can't be reached will display a status of UNREACHABLE.

      The next step would be to look in the NoSQL log files for more detailed error information about the unreachable component. Look first in the aggregated store wide log, which can be found in the node that is hosting the admin service, under the KVROOT/<storename>/logs/<storename>*.log. This shows information from all the different components in the store.

      Suppose Replication Node rg1-rn3, on Storage Node sn3, is not responsive. Look through the <storename>.log for entries made by those components. Each log entry is prefixed with the name of the component that issued the log message. Sometimes the aggregated store wide log has too much information, or sometimes information from a component was not transmitted to the Admin, and therefore isn't included in the aggregated log. In that case, it can be more helpful to look at the Replication Node or Storage Node logs directly, which can be found on their host, in the <KVROOT>/<storename>/logs directory.

      If the problem occurs during an initial deployment, it can be particularly helpful to review the Storage Node logs to make sure that the Storage Node Agent on that node was created correctly, and that the process came up as expected, according to the installation directions.

    • I see a JVM warning: Failed to reserve shared memory in my logs

      By default, NoSQL DB starts up the Replication Node processes with the JVM option " -XX:+UseLargePages" to enable the large page OS option for this process. Some JVMs do not support large pages, and will issue this warning. The warning is advisory, and the store will be operational.

    • Why don't I see NoSQL Database's MBeans in jconsole?

      First, make sure that you have enabled the JMX agent as described in Chapter 8 of the Admin Guide.

      A storage node's JMX agent makes MBeans available at the Storage Node Agent's main registry port number, which is also used for all other RMI services managed by the storage node. To see the MBeans in jconsole, you have to connect jconsole to the host and port where the SNA's registry is listening. For example you could start jconsole like this:


      Or you could start jconsole with no arguments, then choose "Remote Process" in the "New Connection" dialog, and enter "" in address box.

    • What does mean?

      These exceptions indicate a configuration problem with a security-enabled deployment. You would see these errors when using the show plan command for a plan deploy-sn command. An exception like: Remote host closed connection during handshake

      indicates that the target Storage Node was not configured to be security enabled, and is not running SSL. An exception like Certificate signature validation failed

      indicates an incompatible SSL certificate.

      To enable security, you must use the -store-security enable or -store-security configure flag for the makebootconfig utility when initially configuring the Storage Node, or by using the "security-config add-security" command to add security to an insecure installation. See the Security Guide for details.

    • What if the existing store's configuration parameters are different from the KVLocal start() parameters?

      If the existing store's configuration parameters are different from the KVLocalConfig parameters, the KVLocal.start() throws an exception, "parameter not consistent.". You can either update the KVLocalConfig parameters to match the ones recorded in the directory or call the startExistingStore() API.

    • Does the KVLocal RepNode service automatically restart after it has stopped?

      It depends on whether or not the service shutdown was requested by the user.

      The RepNode service automatically gets restarted if it crashes. However, a lot of crashes in a short period prevent automatic restarts. In that case, you should diagnose the problem and restart the service manually.

      When the RepNode service stops because the user called the KVLocal.stop() API or exit the application, then the RepNode service needs to be restarted manually by calling the KVLocal.start() API.

    • Is the existing Java Direct Driver API supported?

      KVLocal supports the Java Direct Driver API.