Oracle Exadata Commands Reference
Part 3: Storage Management
by Arup Nanda
A detailed explanation of the CellCLI and DCLI commands, all their parameters and options, and how they are used for managing storage cells
(The purpose of this guide is educational: to jump-start the transition from DBA to DMA and serve as a quick reference for practicing DMAs. It is not intended to replace official Oracle-provided manuals or other documentation. The information in this guide is not validated by Oracle, is not supported by Oracle, and should only be used at your own risk.)
In the previous two installments, you learned how the Oracle Exadata Database Machine works, about its various components, and the categories of commands applicable to each of those components. One such component is the storage cells, which manage the disks. For many DBAs transitioning into the role of DMAs, perhaps the biggest challenge is becoming comfortable with storage operations, something many DBAs never had to address.
The storage cells in Exadata Database Machine are managed via two tools called CellCLI and DCLI. You had a glimpse of the CellCLI commands in action in Part 2, when configuring Exadata for the first time. In this installment, you will learn the detailed commands of these tools. In doing so, hopefully you will appreciate that it is not as difficult as you thought it would be.
cellcli command is invoked from the Linux command line in the storage cells, not in the compute nodes. Similar to SQL*Plus showing SQL> prompt, CellCLI show the CellCLI> prompt where you will enter the commands.
#cellcli CellCLI: Release 22.214.171.124.0 - Production on Fri Apr 01 10:39:58 EDT 2011 Copyright (c) 2007, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved. Cell Efficiency Ratio: 372M
This will display the CellCLI prompt where you are expected to enter the commands.
CellCLI> … … enter your commands here …
The first command you may want to enter is know about all the other commands available. Well, get some help:
CellCLI> help HELP [topic] Available Topics: ALTER ALTER ALERTHISTORY ALTER CELL … output truncated …
If you want to get more context sensitive help on a specific command,
CellCLI> help list
By the way, you don’t need to be in the CellCLI command prompt to give a command. If you know the command you want to give, you call it directly from Linux command prompt with the
# cellcli -e help
Or, you can use the typical Linux type command terminators, as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel14 ~]# cellcli << EOF > list cell > EOF CellCLI: Release 126.96.36.199.2 - Production on Sat May 14 16:28:43 EDT 2011 Copyright (c) 2007, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved. Cell Efficiency Ratio: 160M CellCLI> list cell prolcel14 online [celladmin@prolcel14 ~]#
To exit from CellCLI, use the commands
Recording the Output
Like SQL*Plus, CellCLI also has a spool command that records the output to a file. Here is an example where you want to record the output to a file named mycellcli.txt
CellCLI> spool mycellcli.txt
To append to a file you already have, use append
CellCLI> spool mycellcli.txt append
Or, if you want to overwrite the file, use replace
CellCLI> spool mycellcli.txt replace
To stop spooling, just issue
What if you want to know what file the output is being written to? Use SPOOL without any argument. It will show the name of the file.
CellCLI> spool currently spooling to mycellcli.txt
You will learn later in the article that you can issue complex queries in CellCLI. Some of these queries might span multiple lines. Since there is no command terminator like “;” in SQL, ending a line makes CellCLI to start interpreting it immediately. To make sure CellCLI understands the line extends beyond the current line, you can use the continuation character “-“, just as you would have done in SQL*Plus.
CellCLI> spool - > mycellcli.txt
Note the continuation prompt “>” above. However, unlike SQL*Plus, CellCLI does not show line numbers for the continued lines.
When you want to execute a standard command in CellCLI, you can create a script file with the commands and execute it using
@ commands. For instance, to execute a script called listdisks.cli, you would issue one of the following:
CellCLI> @listdisks.cli CellCLI> start listdisks.cli
Note that the there is no restriction on the extension. I used
cli merely as a convenience, it could have been anything else.
You can also use the routine Linux
redirection command. Here is an example where you put all the commands in the file mycellci.commands and you want to spool the results to mycellci.out. This is good for automatic monitoring systems.
cellcli <mycellci.commands >mycellci.out
You can put comments in scripts as well. Comments start with
REMARK or "--", as shown below:
REM This is a comment REMARK This is another comment -- This is yet another comment list physicaldisk
You can define two environmental settings
dateformat– to show the format of the date when it is displayed.
CellCLI> set dateformat local Date format was set: Apr 1, 2011 3:35:17 PM.
echo– to toggle the display of commands within scripts.
CellCLI> set echo on CellCLI> set echo off
I am sure you can find resemblance of the control commands with SQL*Plus, a tool you are undoubtedly familiar with. The learning curve should not be tat difficult. Now that you know about the basic commands, let’s dive down to more advanced ones.
The CellCLI commands have the following general structure:
<Verb> <Object> <Modifier> <Filter>
A verb is what you want or the action, e.g. display something.
An object is what you want the action on, e.g. a disk.
A modifier (optional) shows how you want to operation to be modified, e.g. all disks, or a specific disk, etc.
A filter (optional) is similar to the WHERE predicate of a SQL statement, used with WHERE clause.
There are only a few primary verbs you will use mostly and need to remember. They are:
LIST – to show something, e.g. disks, statistics, Resource Manager Plans, etc.
CREATE – to create something, e.g. a cell disk, a threshold
ALTER – to change something that has been established, e.g. change the size of a disk
DROP – to delete something, e.g. a dropping a disk
DESCRIBE – to display the various attributes of an object
There are more verbs but these five are the most common ones among the CellCLI commands.
Let’s see how they are used in common operations. In the following sections you will learn how to perform the management operations – View, Creation, Deletion and Modification – of various components of the storage, e.g. Physical Disks, Grid Disks, LUN, etc.
Physical Disk Operations
Storage cell is all about disks. As you learned in first two installments, each storage cell has 12 physical disks. To display the physical disks in this particular cell, you execute the following command:
CellCLI> list physicaldisk 34:0 E1K5JW normal 34:1 E1L9NC normal … output truncted … [4:0:2:0] 5080020000f3e16FMOD2 normal [4:0:3:0] 5080020000f3e16FMOD3 normal
You can notice that there is no heading above the output, making it difficult to understand what these values mean. Fortunately we can fix that as we will see later. For now let’s focus on something else: To know more detail about each disk, you can use the
detail modifier. It will show details on each disk. Here is a partial output:
CellCLI> list physicaldisk detail name: 34:0 deviceId: 33 diskType: HardDisk enclosureDeviceId: 34 errMediaCount: 0 errOtherCount: 0 foreignState: false luns: 0_0 makeModel: "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" physicalFirmware: 0805 physicalInsertTime: 2011-01-21T14:32:35-05:00 physicalInterface: sas physicalSerial: XXXXXX physicalSize: 558.9109999993816G slotNumber: 0 status: normal name: 34:1 deviceId: 32 diskType: HardDisk enclosureDeviceId: 34 errMediaCount: 0 errOtherCount: 0 foreignState: false luns: 0_1 makeModel: "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" physicalFirmware: 0805 physicalInsertTime: 2011-01-21T14:32:40-05:00 physicalInterface: sas physicalSerial: XXXXXX physicalSize: 558.9109999993816G slotNumber: 1 status: normal … output truncated …
The output shows the details of every disk, making it somewhat unreadable. Many times when you encounter issues with specific disks you may want to find the details of a particular disk. For that, use the name of the disk as another modifier. The name is shown in both types of commands, normal and detail.
CellCLI> list physicaldisk 34:0 CellCLI> list physicaldisk 34:0 detail
While the above command is useful for reading, it lacks a few things.
You still don’t get a lot of other details. For instance the RPM of the disk is not shown.
The results are not in a tabular format, if you want to see more than one disk.
To get these details you can specify named “attributes” in the listing. You can specify these attributes after the modifier attribute. In this example, we have type of the disk (hard disk, or flash disk), model, RPM, Port, and status:
CellCLI> list physicaldisk attributes name, disktype, makemodel, physicalrpm, physicalport, status 34:0 HardDisk "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" normal 34:1 HardDisk "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" normal … output truncated … [4:0:2:0] FlashDisk "MARVELL SD88SA02" normal [4:0:3:0] FlashDisk "MARVELL SD88SA02" normal
This is a much better output that shows the details against each disk. This type of output is quite useful in scripts where you may want to pull the details and format them in certain pre-specified manner or parse them for further processing.
While you may appreciate the above output where using attributes specifically increased the readability of the output, you may also wonder what the valid names of these attributes are. The attribute names vary with the object as well. (For example,
diskType is relevant in case of disks only, not in cells.)
Do you need to remember all of them and the context in which they are relevant? Not at all. That’s where a different verb DESCRIBE comes handy; it shows the attributes of an object, similar to what the describe command in SQL*Plus command does for a table to display the columns. Here is how you display the attributes of the
physicaldisk object. Remember, unlike SQL*Plus, the command is
describe; it cannot be shortened to
CellCLI> describe physicaldisk name ctrlFirmware ctrlHwVersion deviceId diskType enclosureDeviceId errCmdTimeoutCount errHardReadCount errHardWriteCount errMediaCount errOtherCount errSeekCount errorCount foreignState hotPlugCount lastFailureReason luns makeModel notPresentSince physicalFirmware physicalInsertTime physicalInterface physicalPort physicalRPM physicalSerial physicalSize physicalUseType sectorRemapCount slotNumber status
What if you want to display all the attributes of the physical disks; not just a few? You can list all the attribute names explicitly; or – as an easier way – you can just use the option
all, as shown below.
CellCLI> list physicaldisk attributes all 34:0 33 HardDisk 34 0 0 false 0_0 "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" 0805 2011-01-21T14:32:35-05:00 sas E1K5JW 558.9109999993816G 0 normal 34:1 32 HardDisk 34 0 0 false 0_1 "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" 0805 2011-01-21T14:32:40-05:00 sas E1L9NC 558.9109999993816G 1 normal … output truncated … [1:0:0:0] FlashDisk 4_0 "MARVELL SD88SA02" D20Y 2011-01-21T14:33:32-05:00 sas 5080020000f21a2FMOD0 22.8880615234375G "PCI Slot: 4; FDOM: 0" normal [1:0:1:0] FlashDisk 4_1 "MARVELL SD88SA02" D20Y 2011-01-21T14:33:32-05:00 sas 5080020000f21a2FMOD1 22.8880615234375G … output truncated …
This output may not be very useful for reading but if you want to write a script to parse these details and take corrective action, it becomes extremely useful. However, in many cases you may want to see only a certain attributes; not all. In the previous subsection you saw how to select only a few of these attributes.
Checking for Errors
Let’s see a practical use of the named attributes clause. From time to time you will see errors popping up on disk drives, which may have to be replaced. To show the error related attributes, you may choose a script to select only a few attributes related to errors, as shown below:
CellCLI> list physicaldisk attributes name,disktype,errCmdTimeoutCount,errHardReadCount,errHardWriteCount 34:0 HardDisk … output truncated … 34:11 HardDisk [1:0:0:0] FlashDisk … output truncated … [4:0:3:0] FlashDisk
There is no error on any of these disks; so you see those fields remaining unpopulated.
What if you are interested in only a certain type of disk, or filter on some attribute? You can use the SQL-esque predicate WHERE clause. Here you want to see some attributes for all hard disks.
CellCLI> list physicaldisk attributes name, physicalInterface, physicalInsertTime - > where disktype = 'HardDisk' 34:0 sas 2011-01-21T14:32:35-05:00 34:1 sas 2011-01-21T14:32:40-05:00 34:2 sas 2011-01-21T14:32:45-05:00 34:3 sas 2011-01-21T14:32:50-05:00 34:4 sas 2011-01-21T14:32:55-05:00 34:5 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:01-05:00 34:6 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:06-05:00 34:7 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:11-05:00 34:8 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:16-05:00 34:9 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:21-05:00 34:10 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:26-05:00 34:11 sas 2011-01-21T14:33:32-05:00
If you want to change the way the date and time are displayed, you can set the
dateformat environmental variable.
CellCLI> set dateformat local Date format was set: Apr 1, 2011 4:05:54 PM. CellCLI> list physicaldisk attributes name, physicalInterface, physicalInsertTime - > where disktype = 'HardDisk' 34:0 sas Jan 21, 2011 2:32:35 PM 34:1 sas Jan 21, 2011 2:32:40 PM … output truncated …
Filtering can also be specified with negation, i.e.
CellCLI> list physicaldisk where diskType='Flashdisk' [1:0:0:0] 5080020000f21a2FMOD0 normal [1:0:1:0] 5080020000f21a2FMOD1 normal … output truncated … CellCLI> list physicaldisk where diskType!='Flashdisk' 34:0 E1K5JW normal 34:1 E1L9NC normal … output truncated …
Now that you know how to display the objects, let’s see how you can modify the properties. The properties of the physical disks are not modifiable, except one: the display of service LED. You can turn on or off the service LED of disks 34:0 and 34:1 by issuing the following commands.
CellCLI> alter physicaldisk 34:0,34:1 serviceled on CellCLI> alter physicaldisk 34:0,34:1 serviceled off
To turn service LED on all the hard disks of that cell, use the following command:
CellCLI> alter physicaldisk harddisk serviceled on
On all disks (hard disks and flash disks):
CellCLI> alter physicaldisk all serviceled on
There is no creation operation of physical disks because they come with the Exadata machine.
There is no deletion operation of physical disks either because they have to be removed by an engineer.
From the earlier installments you learned that the physical disks are carved up into LUNs. Let’s see the common LUN management commands. To show the LUNs in this cell, you use the following command:
CellCLI> list lun 0_0 0_0 normal 0_1 0_1 normal 0_2 0_2 normal … output truncated …
As in the case of physical disks, you can also display the details of these LUNs by the following command:
CellCLI> list lun detail name: 0_0 cellDisk: CD_00_cell01 deviceName: /dev/sda diskType: HardDisk id: 0_0 isSystemLun: TRUE lunAutoCreate: FALSE lunSize: 557.861328125G lunUID: 0_0 physicalDrives: 34:0 raidLevel: 0 lunWriteCacheMode: "WriteBack, ReadAheadNone, Direct, No Write Cache if Bad BBU" status: normal name: 0_1 cellDisk: CD_01_cell01 … output truncated …
If you want the details for one specific LUN, use its name as the modifier.
CellCLI> list lun 0_0 detail
Like the previous cases you can show the LUNs in a tabular format by selecting all the attributes as well:
CellCLI> list lun attributes all 0_0 CD_00_cell01 /dev/sda HardDisk 0_0 TRUE FALSE 557.861328125G 0_0 34:0 0 "WriteBack, ReadAheadNone, Direct, No Write Cache if Bad BBU" normal … output truncated … 0_11 CD_11_cell01 /dev/sdl HardDisk 0_11 FALSE FALSE 557.861328125G 0_11 34:11 0 "WriteBack, ReadAheadNone, Direct, No Write Cache if Bad BBU" normal 1_0 FD_00_cell01 /dev/sdq FlashDisk 1_0 FALSE FALSE 22.8880615234375G 100.0 [2:0:0:0] normal … output truncated … 5_3 FD_15_cell01 /dev/sdx FlashDisk 5_3 FALSE FALSE 22.8880615234375G 100.0 [3:0:3:0] normal
If you want to see the available attributes of a LUN, use the
CellCLI> describe LUN name cellDisk deviceName diskType errorCount id isSystemLun lunAutoCreate lunSize lunUID overProvisioning physicalDrives raidLevel lunWriteCacheMode status
You can use any of these attributes instead of “all”.
CellCLI> list lun attributes name, cellDisk, raidLevel, status 0_0 CD_00_prolcel14 0 normal 0_1 CD_01_prolcel14 0 normal 0_2 CD_02_prolcel14 0 normal … output truncated …
The properties of a LUN are not modifiable, except one. The LUNs are re-enabled after a failure. If one is not automatically re-enabled after the failure is corrected, you can manually re-enable it by the following command:
CEllCLI> alter lun 0_0 reenable
Sometimes the LUN may be already enabled but may not be shown as such. To resync this reality with the system, you may need to enable it forceably. The force modifier allows that.
CEllCLI> alter lun 0_0 reenable force
There is no delete operation for LUNs in the CellCLI.
Similarly you don’t create LUNs in CellCLI so there is no
create lun command.
From the previous installments you learned that storage cells, also called simply cells, are where the disks are located and they are presented to the database nodes. A full rack of Exadata contains fourteen such cells. To display the information on cells, you give the list cell command.
CellCLI> list cell Cell01 online
The output does not say much except the name of the cell and if it is online. To display more information, use the
CellCLI> list cell detail name: cell01 bmcType: IPMI cellVersion: OSS_188.8.131.52.0_LINUX.X64_101206.2 cpuCount: 24 fanCount: 12/12 fanStatus: normal id: XXXXXXXXXX interconnectCount: 3 interconnect1: bondib0 iormBoost: 0.0 ipaddress1: 184.108.40.206/24 kernelVersion: 2.6.18-220.127.116.11.3.el5 locatorLEDStatus: off makeModel: SUN MICROSYSTEMS SUN FIRE X4270 M2 SERVER SAS metricHistoryDays: 7 notificationMethod: mail notificationPolicy: critical,warning,clear offloadEfficiency: 372.1M powerCount: 2/2 powerStatus: normal smtpFrom: "Proligence Test Database Machine" smtpFromAddr: email@example.com smtpPort: 25 smtpPwd: ****** smtpServer: standardrelay.proligence.com smtpToAddr: firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org smtpUser: smtpUseSSL: FALSE status: online temperatureReading: 24.0 temperatureStatus: normal upTime: 32 days, 4:44 cellsrvStatus: running msStatus: running rsStatus: running
You will understand the meaning of all these attributes as you explore the cell modifications later in this section.To display the output in a tabular format in one line, as you saw in the case of the physical disks, use the attribute modifier:
CellCLI> list cell attributes all cell01 IPMI OSS_18.104.22.168.0_LINUX.X64_101206.2 24 12/12 normal XXXXXXXX 3 bondib0 0.0 22.214.171.124/24 2.6.18-126.96.36.199.3.el5 off SUN MICROSYSTEMS SUN FIRE X4270 M2 SERVER SAS 7 mail critical,warning,clear 372.1M 2/2 normal "Proligence Test Database Machine" email@example.com 25 ****** standardrelay.proligence.com firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org FALSE online 25.0 normal 32 days, 21:52 running running running
The output comes as one line containing all the attributes. Of course, you can use specific attributes as you did in other cases. To see all the available attributes, use the previously explained
CellCLI> describe cell name modifiable bmcType cellNumber modifiable cellVersion comment modifiable cpuCount emailFormat modifiable events modifiable fanCount fanStatus id interconnectCount interconnect1 modifiable interconnect2 modifiable interconnect3 modifiable interconnect4 modifiable iormBoost ipBlock modifiable ipaddress1 modifiable ipaddress2 modifiable ipaddress3 modifiable ipaddress4 modifiable kernelVersion locatorLEDStatus location modifiable makeModel metricCollection modifiable metricHistoryDays modifiable notificationMethod modifiable notificationPolicy modifiable offloadEfficiency powerCount powerStatus realmName modifiable smtpFrom modifiable smtpFromAddr modifiable smtpPort modifiable smtpPwd modifiable smtpServer modifiable smtpToAddr modifiable smtpUser modifiable smtpUseSSL modifiable snmpSubscriber modifiable status temperatureReading temperatureStatus traceLevel modifiable upTime cellsrvStatus msStatus rsStatus
The word modifiable above means that specific attribute can be modified by an ALTER verb. It’s not possible to give all the possible combinations in this short article and not all are used often anyway; so, let’s see the most common ones.
A cell runs muliple services, e.g. the Restart Server, the Management Server and Cell Services. To shut down a cell, you can shut down specific services by name or the entire service. To shutdown only one service, e.g. the Restart Server service, execute:
CellCLI> alter cell shutdown services rs Stopping RS services... The SHUTDOWN of RS services was successful.
To restart that particular service, use the
restart modifier, shown below:
CellCLI> alter cell restart services rs Stopping RS services... CELL-01509: Restart Server (RS) not responding. Starting the RS services... Getting the state of RS services... Running
At any point you can confirm it by checking the status:
CellCLI> list cell attributes rsStatus running
To shutdown the Management Server, execute:
CellCLI> alter cell shutdown services MS
To shutdown the Cell Services, execute:
CellCLI> alter cell shutdown services CELLSR
What if you want to shutdown the entire cell? The “all” modifier is a shotcut to shutdown all the services:
CellCLI> alter cell shutdown services all Stopping the RS, CELLSRV, and MS services... The SHUTDOWN of services was successful.
To restart all the services, execute the following command:
CellCLI> alter cell restart services all Starting the RS, CELLSRV, and MS services... Getting the state of RS services... running Starting CELLSRV services... The STARTUP of CELLSRV services was successful. Starting MS services... The STARTUP of MS services was successful.
To turn on or off the LED on the chassis of the cell, execute:
CellCLI> alter cell led on CellCLI> alter cell led off
The cell can communicate its status by sending emails. So configuration of email is vital for the proper monitoring of cells. In this section you will learn how to do that. First, verify the status of the email configuration in the cell.
CellCLI> alter cell validate mail CELL-02578: An error was detected in the SMTP configuration: CELL-05503: An error was detected during notification. The text of the associated internal error is: Could not connect to SMTP host: standardrelay.proligence.com, port: 25, response: 421. The notification recipient is email@example.com. CELL-05503: An error was detected during notification. The text of the associated internal error is: Could not connect to SMTP host: standardrelay.proligence.com, port: 25, response: 421. The notification recipient is firstname.lastname@example.org. CELL-05503: An error was detected during notification. The text of the associated internal error is: Could not connect to SMTP host: standardrelay.proligence.com, port: 25, response: 421. The notification recipient is email@example.com. Please verify your SMTP configuration.
The above output shows that the mail setup has not been done properly, meaning the cell will not be able to send accurate mails required for monitoring. Let’s configure the mail correctly.
First, let’s configue the address and name of the sender, i.e. the Cell 07 (this cell). We will give it an address of firstname.lastname@example.org. That address may or may not actually exist in the mail server; it’s not important. When the emails come, this address will be shown as the sender. We will also give a name to the sender, i.e. “Exadata Cell 07”, which helps us indetify the sender in the email.
CellCLI> alter cell email@example.com' Cell cell07 successfully altered CellCLI> alter cell smtpfrom='Exadata Cell 07' Cell cell07 successfully altered
Then, we configure the address the cell should the emails to. This is typically the on-call DBA or DMA. You can configure more than one address as well.
CellCLI> alter cell firstname.lastname@example.org' Cell cell07 successfully altered
The cell can send he mails as text or html, which can be configured as shown below.
CellCLI> alter cell emailFormat='text' Cell cell07 successfully altered CellCLI> alter cell emailFormat='html' Cell cell07 successfully altered
With all these in place, let’s make sure the email works. You can validate the email setup by executing the following:
CellCLI> alter cell validate mail Cell cell07 successfully altered
If the setup is correct, you will receive a mail from email@example.com (The email you configured as the sender). Here is the body of that email.
This test e-mail message from Oracle Cell cell07 indicates successful configuration of your e-mail address and mail server.
You may wonder what type of emails the cell sends out. Here is an email sent by the cell when there is a hardware failure:
And here is the email on another failure of the cell disk as a result of flashdisk failure.
BMC, or Baseboard Management Controller, controls the compoments of the cell. The BMC should be running all the time. You can restart it, if needed by executing the command below. The comamnd also reboots the BMC if it is already running.
CellCLI> alter cell restart bmc
To make sure the BMC sends the alerts to the cell so that they show up as alerts, execute
CellCLI> alter cell configurebmc Cell Cell07 BMC configured successfully
The cells can also send SNMP traps. Any monitoring system based on SNMP traps can receive and process these SNMP traps to show the statistics on cells. To validate the SNMP configuration to be use dfor Automatic Service Requests (ASRs), use the following command:
CellCLI> alter cell validate snmp type=ASR Cell cell01 successfully altered
To enable automatic service request generation by the SNMP, youneed to define a subscriber. Here is an example:
CellCLI> alter cell snmpsubscriber=((host='snmp01.proligence.com,type=ASR')) Cell cell01 successfully altered
You may want to validate the firmware of the cell at any time by executing
CellCLI> alter cell validate configuration Cell cell07 successfully altered
Finally, if you want to reset the cell to its factory settings, use:
CellCLI> drop cell
If you have defined griddisks in this cell, you have to drop them first. Otherwise the following forces them to be dropped.
CellCLI> drop cell force
drop cell command removes the sell related properties of the server; it does not actually remove the physical server.
The cells are created in the beginning of the project, and is usually done via the automatic installation script. Later, you will not likely use this command but it’s shown here briefly for the sake of completeness. The command is
create cell. Here is the
help on the command:
CellCLI> help create cell Usage: CREATE CELL [<cellname>] [realmname=<realmvalue>,] [interconnect1=<ethvalue>,] [interconnect2=<ethvalue>,] [interconnect3=<ethvalue>,] [interconnect4=<ethvalue>,] ( ( [ipaddress1=<ipvalue>,] [ipaddress2=<ipvalue>,] [ipaddress3=<ipvalue>,] [ipaddress4=<ipvalue>,] ) | ( [ipblock=<ipblkvalue>, cellnumber=<numvalue>] ) ) Purpose: Configures the cell network and starts services. Arguments: <cellname>: Name to be assigned to the cell. Uses hostname if nothing is specified <realmvalue>: Name of the realm this cell belongs to. <ethvalue>: Value of the eth interconnect assigned to this network interconnect. <ipvalue>: Value of the IP address to be assigned to this network interconnect. <ipblkvalue>: Value of the IP block to determine IP address for the network. <numvalue>: Number of the cell in this ip block.
Managing Cell Disks
Each physical disk in the cell is further exposed as cell disks. To show all the cell disks in this cell, use the list celldisk command as shown below.
CellCLI> list celldisk CD_00_prolcel14 normal CD_01_prolcel14 normal CD_02_prolcel14 normal … output truncated …
This is a rather succinct output without much useful detail. The detail modifier allows display of more detailed information on the cell disks.
CellCLI> list celldisk detail name: CD_00_prolcel14 comment: creationTime: 2011-04-27T15:11:27-04:00 deviceName: /dev/sda devicePartition: /dev/sda3 diskType: HardDisk errorCount: 0 freeSpace: 0 id: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx interleaving: none lun: 0_0 raidLevel: 0 size: 1832.59375G status: normal name: CD_01_prolcel14 … output truncated …
This output shows all the cell disks one after the other, which makes up a rather long and unreadable list. If you would rather want to show the details in a tabular format with one line per cell disk, use the attribute all modifier shown below:
CellCLI> list celldisk attributes all CD_00_cell01 Mar 1, 2011 6:20:45 PM /dev/sda /dev/sda3 HardDisk 0 0 xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx none 0_0 0 528.734375G normal … output truncated … FD_00_cell01 Jan 21, 2011 5:07:32 PM /dev/sdq /dev/sdq FlashDisk 0 0 xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx none 1_0 22.875G normal
To know the columns, or rather the attributes shown here, use the describe command to display the attributes of the cell disk.
CellCLI> describe celldisk name modifiable comment modifiable creationTime deviceName devicePartition diskType errorCount freeSpace freeSpaceMap id interleaving lun physicalDisk raidLevel size status
The output columns are displayed in the same order. You can select only a few attributes from this list instead of all. For instance, let’s see only name of the cell disk and the corresponding Linux partition name.
CellCLI> list celldisk attributes name, devicePartition CD_00_prolcel14 /dev/sda3 CD_01_prolcel14 /dev/sdb3 … output truncated …
Similarly you can use the attributes for filtering the output as well. The following shows an example where you wanted to see all cell disks larger than 23GB.
CellCLI> list celldisk attributes name, devicePartition where size>23G CD_00_prolcel14 /dev/sda3 CD_01_prolcel14 /dev/sdb3 CD_02_prolcel14 /dev/sdc CD_03_prolcel14 /dev/sdd CD_04_prolcel14 /dev/sde CD_05_prolcel14 /dev/sdf CD_06_prolcel14 /dev/sdg CD_07_prolcel14 /dev/sdh CD_08_prolcel14 /dev/sdi CD_09_prolcel14 /dev/sdj CD_10_prolcel14 /dev/sdk CD_11_prolcel14 /dev/sdl
Only two attributes of the cell disks are changeable: the comment and the name.
Suppose you want to add a comment “Flash Disk” to the cell disk FD_00_cell01. You need to execute:
CellCLI> alter celldisk FD_00_cell01 comment='Flash Disk'
If you want to make the change to comments on all the hard disks, you would issue:
CellCLI> alter celldisk all harddisk comment=’Hard Disk’ CellDisk CD_00_cell01 successfully altered CellDisk CD_01_cell01 successfully altered … output truncated …
Similarly if you want to change the comment on all the flash disks:
CellCLI> alter celldisk all flashdisk comment='Flash Disk'
This command is rarely used but it may be needed when cell disks fail and you want to drop the cell disks and create them fresh. Here is how to drop the cell disk named CD_00_cell01:
CellCLI> drop celldisk CD_00_cell01
If the cell disk contains grid disks, the drop command will fail. Either drop the grid disks (described in the next section) or use the force option.
CellCLI> drop celldisk CD_00_cell01 force
You can also drop all cell disks of certain types, e.g. hard disks or flash disks.
CellCLI> drop celldisk harddisk CellCLI> drop celldisk flashdisk
Or, drop them all:
CellCLI> drop celldisk all
Managing Grid Disks
In the previous installments you learned that grid disks are carved out of the cell disks and the grid disks are presented to the ASM instance as disks, which are eventually used to build ASM diskgroups.
CellCLI> list griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_prolcel14 active DBFS_DG_CD_03_prolcel14 active DBFS_DG_CD_04_prolcel14 active … output truncated …
Or you can get the details of a specific grid disk:
CellCLI> list griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_cell01 detail name: DBFS_DG_CD_02_cell01 availableTo: cellDisk: CD_02_cell01 comment: creationTime: 2011-03-01T18:21:41-05:00 diskType: HardDisk errorCount: 0 id: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx offset: 528.734375G size: 29.125G status: active
As with the previous cases, you can also see:
CellCLI> describe griddisk name modifiable availableTo modifiable cellDisk comment modifiable creationTime diskType errorCount id offset size modifiable status
You can use these keywords to display specific – not all – attributes of the grid disks. Here is a command to display the name, the cell disks, and the type of the disk:
CellCLI> list griddisk attributes name,cellDisk,diskType DBFS_DG_CD_02_prolcel14 CD_02_prolcel14 HardDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_prolcel14 CD_03_prolcel14 HardDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_prolcel14 CD_04_prolcel14 HardDisk … output truncated …
You could have also used the following to show all the attributes:
CellCLI> list griddisk attributes all
If you want to show details for a certain type of attribute only, you can use the filter before the attributes modifier. The following shows the command to show all the grid disks of size 476.546875GB:
CellCLI> list griddisk attributes name,cellDisk,status where size=476.546875G PRORECO_CD_00_prolcel14 CD_00_prolcel14 active PRORECO_CD_01_prolcel14 CD_01_prolcel14 active PRORECO_CD_02_prolcel14 CD_02_prolcel14 active PRORECO_CD_03_prolcel14 CD_03_prolcel14 active … output truncated …
The describe command does not show two important attributes:
ASMModeStatus – whether a current ASM diskgroup is using this griddisk. A value of ONLINE indicates this grid disk is being used.
ASMDeactivationOutcome – recall that grid disks can be deactivated, which is effectively taking them offline. Since ASM mirroring ensures that the data is located on another disk, making this disk offline does not lose data. However, if the mirror is offline, or is not present, then making this grid disk offline will result in loss of data. This attribute shows whether the grid disk can be deactivated without loss of data. A value of “Yes” indicates you can deactivate this grid disk without data loss.
CellCLI> list griddisk attributes name, ASMDeactivationOutcome, ASMModeStatus DBFS_DG_CD_02_cell01 Yes ONLINE DBFS_DG_CD_03_cell01 Yes ONLINE DBFS_DG_CD_04_cell01 Yes ONLINE … output truncated …
Only name, comment, Available To, status and size are modifiable. Let’s see how to change the comment for a specific grid disk:
CellCLI> alter griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 comment='Used for Reco'; GridDisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 successfully altered
You can change the comment for all the grid disks of a cetain time, e.g. all hard disks:
CellCLI> alter griddisk all harddisk comment='Hard Disk'; GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_cell01 successfully altered GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_cell01 successfully altered … output truncated …
Making a grid disk inactive effectively offlines its associated ASM disk.
CellCLI> alter griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 inactive GridDisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 successfully altered
In the process of doing so, you can use
force, which forces the ASM disk to become offline even there is data on that disk.
CellCLI> alter griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 inactive force
The command will wait until the ASM disk becomes offline. If you want the prompt to come back immediately without waiting, you can use
CellCLI> alter griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 inactive nowait
You can make it active again:
CellCLI> alter griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 active GridDisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 successfully altered
You rarely have to drop grid disks but some situations may warrant it (if you want to swap disks, for example.) You can do that by dropping the old one and creating a new one. Here is how you drop a specific named grid disk.
CellCLI> drop griddisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_prolcel14
Sometimes you may want to drop a number of grid disks. You can drop all grid disks with a specific prefix in their name, e.g. DBFS.
CellCLI> drop griddisk prefix=DBFS
Or, you can drop all the grid disks from this cell:
CellCLI> drop griddisk all
Sometimes you may want to drop all the grid disks of only a specific type – hard disks or flash disks. You will then execute one of the following:
drop griddisk flashdisk
drop griddisk harddisk
If the disk is active, it won’t be dropped. Here is an example:
drop griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01;
CELL-02549: Grid disk is in use and FORCE is not specified for the operation.
In that case, you can force drop the disk using the
CellCLI> drop griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 force GridDisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 successfully dropped
Rarely will you need to create grid disks but you may need to for the same reason you drop them. The
create griddisk command does it. Here is an example showing how to create a grid disk from a specific cell disk.
CellCLI> create griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 celldisk=CD_11_cell01 GridDisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 successfully created
If you want to create a grid disk in each cell disk, you can create them individually, or you can use a shortcut:
create griddisk all prefix PRORECO
This will create a grid disk in the naming convention <Prefix>_<Cell Disk Name>, which is usually the name of the database. But you can also use the type of the disk – hard or flash as a prefix instead of the database name.
create griddisk all flashdisk prefix FLASH
You can optionally specify a size, which can be less than or equal to that of the celldisk.
create griddisk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 celldisk=CD_11_cell01 size=100M
You may want to specify a smaller size to keep less data on the disks.
Managing Flash Disks
As you recall, each storage cell comes with several flash disk cards and they are presented to the cells as cell disks. Each cell has only one flash cache, which is made up of the various flash disks as the cell disks. To see the flash cache, use:
CellCLI> list flashcache cell01_FLASHCACHE normal
Of course the pithy output does not tell us much. The detail modifier takes care of that by displaying a lot more:
CellCLI> list flashcache detail name: cell01_FLASHCACHE cellDisk: FD_13_cell01,FD_00_cell01,FD_10_cell01,FD_02_cell01,FD_06_cell01,FD_12_cell01,FD_05_cell01,FD_08_cell01,FD_15_cell01,FD_14_cell01,FD_07_cell01,FD_04_cell01, FD_03_cell01,FD_11_cell01,FD_09_cell01,FD_01_cell01 creationTime: 2011-01-21T17:07:43-05:00 degradedCelldisks: effectiveCacheSize: 365.25G id: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx size: 365.25G status: normal
The output shows various important data on the flash cache configured for the cell:
- The flash disks configured as cell disks, e.g. FD_00_cell01, FD_01_cell01, etc. You can get information on these cell disks by list celldisk command, as shown previously. Here is another example:
CellCLI> list celldisk FD_00_cell01 detail name: FD_00_cell01 comment: "Flash Disk" creationTime: 2011-01-21T17:07:32-05:00 deviceName: /dev/sdq devicePartition: /dev/sdq diskType: FlashDisk errorCount: 0 freeSpace: 0 id: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx interleaving: none lun: 1_0 size: 22.875G status: normal
- The total size is 365.25GB.
- It’s available.
You can also get the output in a single line:
CellCLI> list flashcache attributes all cell01_FLASHCACHE FD_13_cell01,FD_00_cell01,FD_10_cell01,FD_02_cell01,FD_06_cell01,FD_12_cell01,FD_05_cell01,FD_08_cell01,FD_15_cell01,FD_14_cell01,FD_07_cell01, FD_04_cell01,FD_03_cell01,FD_11_cell01,FD_09_cell01,FD_01_cell01 2011-01-21T17:07:43-05:00 365.25G 686510aa-1f06-4ee7-ab84-743db1ae01d8 365.25G normal
Like the previous cases, you can see what attributes are available for the flashcache.
CellCLI> describe flashcache name cellDisk creationTime degradedCelldisks effectiveCacheSize id size status
From these you can list only a subset of the attributes:
CellCLI> list flashcache attributes degradedCelldisks
There is no modification operation for flash cache.
You create the flash cache using the
create flashcache command. You will at least need to specify the cell disks created on the flash disks.
CellCLI> create flashcache celldisk='FD_13_cell01,FD_00_cell01,FD_10_cell01,FD_02_cell01,FD_06_cell01,FD_12_cell01,FD_05_cell01,FD_08_cell01,FD_15_cell01,FD_14_cell01,FD_07_cell01, FD_04_cell01,FD_03_cell01,FD_11_cell01,FD_09_cell01,FD_01_cell01'
If you want to use all the flash-based cell disks, you can use:
CellCLI> create flashcache all Flash cache cell01_FLASHCACHE successfully created
To specify a certain size:
CellCLI> create flashcache all size=365.25G
If you want to use only a few cell disks as flash cache and the rest as a grid disks to be ultimately used by ASM diskgroups, you can use only a handful of the cell disks.
CellCLI> create flashcache celldisk='FD_00_cell01' Flash cache cell01_FLASHCACHE successfully created
The rest of the flash disks can be used as grid disks and then used for ASM disk groups. Note how the flash cache size is reduced now.
CellCLI> list flashcache detail name: cell01_FLASHCACHE cellDisk: FD_00_cell01 creationTime: 2011-05-15T15:03:44-04:00 degradedCelldisks: effectiveCacheSize: 22.828125G id: xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx size: 22.828125G status: normal
You generally don’t need to drop the flash cache, except under one circumstance: when you want to use part (or none) of the flash disks as storage and not as flash cache. To drop the flash cache from the cell, use the following command.
CellCLI> drop flashcache Flash cache cell01_FLASHCACHE successfully dropped
After that you can either create the flash cache with fewer cell disks or not create it at all.
Flash Cache Content
Remember the purpose of the flash disks? To recap, their purpose is to provide a secondary buffer, known as flash cache. You've already learned how to manage the flash cache, but that brings up a very important point: How do you know if the flash cache has been effective?
A simple check is to look for the contents of the flash cache. To display the contents, use the following command. Beware, in a production system where a lot of data may be cached, this output may be very long. You can always press Control-C to break the output.
CellCLI> list flashcachecontent cachedKeepSize: 0 cachedSize: 81920 dbID: 374480170 dbUniqueName: PROPRD hitCount: 5 missCount: 0 objectNumber: 131483 tableSpaceNumber: 729 cachedKeepSize: 0 cachedSize: 65536 dbID: 374480170 dbUniqueName: PROPRD hitCount: 5 missCount: 0 objectNumber: 131484 tableSpaceNumber: 729 … output truncated …
The output shows all the contents of the flash cache. In the previous example, it shows some important data:
dbID and dbUniqueName – DBID and name of the database of whose contents are in the flash cache. Remember, the DBM may contain more than one database so you should know how much is from which database.
objectNumber – the DATA_OBJECT_ID (not OBJECT_ID) value from DBA_OBJECTS view for the database object which is in the cache.
tableSpaceNumber – the tablespace where the object is stored in the database.
Other data points are self explanatory. If you want to see what all attributes of the flash cache contents are visible, you can use the
attribute command shown below.
CellCLI> describe flashcachecontent cachedKeepSize cachedSize dbID dbUniqueName hitCount hoursToExpiration missCount objectNumber tableSpaceNumber
Let’s see with an example table called MONTEST1. First we need to know its data_object_id, which is the same as object_id in most cases, except where the segments may be different, e.g. in case of partitioned tables, materialized views and indexes.
SQL> select object_id, data_object_id from user_objects 2 where object_name = 'MONTEST1'; OBJECT_ID DATA_OBJECT_ID ---------- -------------- 211409 211409
In this case the data_object_id and object_id are the same, because this is an non-partitioned table. Now, let’s see how many fragments of this table are in the flash cache:
CellCLI> list flashcachecontent where objectnumber=211409 detail cachedKeepSize: 0 cachedSize: 1048576 dbID: 374480170 dbUniqueName: PROPRD hitCount: 48 missCount: 2237 objectNumber: 211409 tableSpaceNumber: 846 … output truncated …
The output shows the chunks of the data from this segment in the flash cache. You could also use the same technique to find the objects of a single tablespace in the cache. You need to know the tablespace number, which is something you can get from the table TS$ in the SYS schema. In the output above, we see that the cache chunk is from the tablespace 846. If you want to check the tablespace name, use the following query:
SQL> select name 2 from ts$ 3 where ts# = 846; NAME ------------------------------ USERS_DATA
Conversely, you can get the tablespace number from the name and use it to check the cache entries from CellCLI.
There is no creation operation for flash cache content. Data goes in there by the way of normal operations.
There is no modification operation; the flash cache is managed by the Exadata Storage Server software.
There is no deletion operation since the entries are deleted from the cache by the Exadata Storage Server software.
Group Commands – DCLI
So far you have seen all the commands possible through CellCLI, which applies to the cell you are logged into at that time. What if you want to manage something on all the cells?
For instance, suppose you want to list the status of all 14 cells in the Exadata full-rack database machine. CellCLI’s list cell command gives that information right away, but for that cell only. You can log on to all the other 13 cells and issue the command to get the status – a process that is not only time consuming but which also may not work very well for scripting purposes, at least not easily. To address that, a new interface is available, named DCLI, which allows you to run commands on all other cells while logged in to single cell.
Let’s see the original problem – you are logged in to cell01 and you want to check the status of cells 1 through 14. You then execute the dcli operation as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -c prolcel01,prolcel02,prolcel03,prolcel04,prolcel05,prolcel06,prolcel07,prolcel08, prolcel09,prolcel10,prolcel11,prolcel12,prolcel13,prolcel14 -l root "cellcli -e list cell" prolcel01: cell01 online prolcel02: cell02 online prolcel03: cell03 online prolcel04: cell04 online … output truncated …
Let’s dissect the command.
The last part of the command
cellcli –e list cellis what we want to run on all the other cells.
-coption specifies the cells where this command cellcli –e list cell should be run
-loption specifies the user the command should be run as. In this case it’s root. The default is celadmin.
The DCLI interface is not a command but rather a Python script that executes the command on the other cells. This remote execution is done by ssh command, therefore the cells should already have ssh equivalency. If you don’t have it, you can use
dcli -k to establish it.
Note the use of all the cell names with the
-c option. What is you always select the cell names? The need to provide the cell names every time may not be convenient and is prone to mistakes. Another parameter,
-g (group), allows definition of a group of cells that can be addressed as a whole. First create a file called all_cells with the hostnames of the cells as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# cat all_cells prolcel01 prolcel02 prolcel03 prolcel04 prolcel05 prolcel06 prolcel07 prolcel08 prolcel09 prolcel10 prolcel11 prolcel12 prolcel13 prolcel14
With this file in place, you can pass this file to the group (
-g) parameter of DCLI instead of the cell names:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -g all_cells -l root "cellcli -e list cell"
If you want to see which cells are used as targets of the execution, you can use the
-t option, for “target”. The hostnames of the cells where the commands from DCLI will be executed will be displayed. Suppose you made a mistake by not placing all the cells in that all_cells file but rather only 8, this command will show it clearly.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -g all_cells -t Target cells: ['prolcel01', 'prolcel02', 'prolcel03', 'prolcel04', 'prolcel05', 'prolcel06', 'prolcel07', 'prolcel08']
Only cells up to #8 were displayed.
But DCLI is not just to execute CellCLI commands. It’s a remote execution tool. Any command that can be executed from the command line can be given to the DCLI interface to be executed remotely.
One such command is
vmstat. Suppose you want to get a quick pulse on all the cells by executing
vmstat 2 2, you can pass it to the DCLI interface, as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells vmstat 2 2 prolcel01: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel01: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel01: 1 0 0 9077396 381232 1189992 0 0 13 12 0 0 1 0 99 0 0 prolcel01: 0 0 0 9121764 381232 1190032 0 0 260 564 1143 25691 3 1 96 0 0 prolcel02: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel02: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel02: 1 0 0 9418412 350612 970424 0 0 7 10 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel02: 1 0 0 9417852 350612 970424 0 0 0 28 1047 23568 3 1 96 0 0 prolcel03: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel03: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel03: 1 0 0 9312432 354948 1049780 0 0 7 12 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel03: 0 0 0 9313108 354948 1049892 0 0 0 60 1040 19046 0 0 100 0 0 prolcel04: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel04: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel04: 0 0 0 9275392 360644 1080236 0 0 21 13 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel04: 0 0 0 9275788 360644 1080240 0 0 280 68 1093 17136 0 0 100 0 0 prolcel05: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel05: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel05: 1 0 0 9200652 361064 1058544 0 0 6 12 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel05: 1 0 0 9200840 361064 1058544 0 0 0 52 1036 18000 0 4 96 0 0 prolcel06: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel06: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel06: 0 0 0 9280912 354832 1057432 0 0 8 11 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel06: 0 0 0 9281388 354832 1057440 0 0 32 24 1040 18619 0 0 100 0 0 prolcel07: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel07: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel07: 0 0 0 9795664 287140 877948 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel07: 0 0 0 9795136 287140 878004 0 0 0 36 1032 21026 0 1 99 0 0 prolcel08: procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------ prolcel08: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st prolcel08: 0 0 0 9295716 320564 1043408 0 0 6 10 0 0 0 0 99 0 0 prolcel08: 0 0 0 9295740 320564 1043412 0 0 0 4 1014 21830 0 0 100 0 0
The output is useful in many ways. Not only it saved you the need of typing the command on all the cells, it displayed the output on the same page allowing you to compare the results across the cells. For instance, you may notice that the values for blocks out (bo) and blocks in (bi) in the output are not similar across all the cells. They are more in case cell01 and cell04, indicating higher IO activity in those cells.
Here is another example. Suppose you want to make sure that OSWatcher is running on all the cells. You can use the following command to check that.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells ps -aef|grep OSWatcher prolcel01: root 557 19331 0 Feb28 ? 00:15:08 /bin/ksh ./OSWatcherFM.sh 168 prolcel01: root 5886 24280 0 21:14 pts/0 00:00:00 grep OSWatcher prolcel01: root 19331 1 0 Feb28 ? 01:08:33 /bin/ksh ./OSWatcher.sh 15 168 bzip2 prolcel02: root 554 17501 0 Feb28 ? 00:14:47 /bin/ksh ./OSWatcherFM.sh 168
To complete the discussion on remote execution, please note that it can be executed on any of cells, where the current cell may be excluded. For instance, you are on cell01 and you want to check the status of a specific physical disk on cell08, you don’t need to logon to that cell to use the command. Right from cell0, you can use the
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -c prolcel08 cellcli -e "list physicaldisk 20:8 detail" prolcel08: name: 20:8 prolcel08: deviceId: 11 prolcel08: diskType: HardDisk prolcel08: enclosureDeviceId: 20 prolcel08: errMediaCount: 0 prolcel08: errOtherCount: 1 prolcel08: foreignState: false prolcel08: luns: 0_8 prolcel08: makeModel: "SEAGATE ST360057SSUN600G" prolcel08: physicalFirmware: 0805 prolcel08: physicalInsertTime: 2011-01-21T14:23:57-05:00 prolcel08: physicalInterface: sas prolcel08: physicalSerial: XXXXXX prolcel08: physicalSize: 558.9109999993816G prolcel08: slotNumber: 8 prolcel08: status: normal
Apart from checking values, DCLI is also useful to set values across a lot of cells at a time. For instance, suppose your mail SMTP server is changed and you need to set up a different value of smtServer for the cells. The
alter cell smtpServer=’…’ command in CellCLI does that; but it needs to be executed on all the cells. Instead, we can use DCLI to execute them across all the cells specified as a group in the file all_cells, as shown below.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l celladmin -g all_cells cellcli -e "alter cell smtpServer=\'smtp.proligence.com\'" prolcel01: Cell cell01 successfully altered prolcel02: Cell cell02 successfully altered prolcel03: Cell cell03 successfully altered prolcel04: Cell cell04 successfully altered prolcel05: Cell cell05 successfully altered prolcel06: Cell cell06 successfully altered prolcel07: Cell cell07 successfully altered prolcel08: Cell cell08 successfully altered
Use the same technique to update the other SMTP parameters of the cell as well:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells cellcli -e "alter cell smtpToAddr=\'firstname.lastname@example.org\'"
Check up all settings at one place:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells cellcli -e "list cell attributes name,smtpServer,smtpToAddr,smtpFrom,smtpFromAddr,smtpPort" prolcel01: cell01 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel02: cell02 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel03: cell03 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel04: cell04 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel05: cell05 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel06: cell06 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Proligence Test Database Machine" firstname.lastname@example.org 25 prolcel07: cell07 STCEXCPMB02.xxxx.xxxx email@example.com "Exadata Cell 07" firstname.lastname@example.org 25
After everything is set up properly, you may want to make sure the email set up is correct by running the alter cell validate command, across all the cells as shown below.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells cellcli -e "alter cell validate mail"
If you get the email from these cells, then the emails have been configured properly.
You might see that the output from DCLI is not rather large since it shows the output from all the cells. It might be difficult to read, especially for scripting purposes. To address that problem, DCLI has another parameter
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells -n cellcli -e "alter cell validate mail" OK: ['prolcel01', 'prolcel02', 'prolcel03', 'prolcel04', 'prolcel05', 'prolcel06', 'prolcel07', 'prolcel08']
Sometimes you want to check something quickly but want to see only exceptions; not all output. For instance, suppose you want to find out which grid disks are inactive. Following command will show the status of the grid disks.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells cellcli -e "list griddisk"
But it will list all the disks – active or inactive. With hundreds of grid disks, the output may be too overwhelming and less useful. Instead, you may want to see those ones that are inactive. The
-r option allows you to enter a regular expression that will not be matched. In this case, we want to see the strings which are not “active”. We can write a command like the following.
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -r '.* active' -l root -g all_cells cellcli -e "list griddisk" .* active: ['prolcel01', 'prolcel02', 'prolcel03', 'prolcel04', 'prolcel05', 'prolcel06', 'prolcel07', 'prolcel08'] prolcel01: PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 inactive
It clearly showed that the grid disk PRORECO_CD_11_cell01 in cell prolcel01 is inactive. It’s a quick check on abnormal conditions.
You can place
cellcli commands inside a script and call that script. Suppose you want to develop an error check script for CellCLI called err.dcl (the extension .dcl is not mandatory; it’s just convenient). Here is how the script looks like:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# cat err.dcl cellcli -e list physicaldisk attributes errCmdTimeoutCount,errHardReadCount,errHardWriteCount,errMediaCount,errOtherCount,errSeekCount,errorCount where disktype='HardDisk'
You saw earlier how to execute this script from CellCLI. You can execute this script from DCLI as well, using the
-x option, as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells -x err.dcl prolcel01: 34:0 0 0 prolcel01: 34:1 0 0 prolcel01: 34:2 0 0 prolcel01: 34:3 0 0 … output truncated … prolcel08: 20:6 0 0 prolcel08: 20:7 0 0 prolcel08: 20:8 0 1 prolcel08: 20:9 0 0 prolcel08: 20:10 0 0 prolcel08: 20:11 0 0
Note how the error is shown in prolcel08 but it is buried under tons of other output, making it less readable and prone to overlook. Here is where the
-r option (described in the last subsection) comes handy, to remove the lines containing “active”, as shown below:
[celladmin@prolcel01 ~]# dcli -l root -g all_cells -r '.* 0' -x err.dcl .* 0: ['prolcel01', 'prolcel02', 'prolcel03', 'prolcel04', 'prolcel05', 'prolcel06', 'prolcel07', 'prolcel08'] prolcel08: 0 1
This resultant output is short and simple.
In summary, the
dcli command allows you to execute commands (including
cellcli) on other cell servers. The general structure of the command is
Where commands could be CellCLI commands, e.g.
cellcli –e list cell, or Linux commands like
vmstat 2 2.
Here are the most commonly used options and what they do.
|Option||Value Expected after the Option||Example Usage||What It Does|
|-c||Names of the cell(s)||-c dwhcel01,dwhcel02||Executes the commands only on those cells.|
|-g||The file name where the cells are listed||-g all_cells||Executes the command on the cells mentioned in the file all_cells.|
|-l||The OS user that will execute the command||-l root||The default user is celladmin; but you can use any other user to use for remote ssh execution. Make sure the user has ssh equivalency across all the cells where you run this command|
|-n||Not Applicable||-n||This shows an abbreviated output instead of a long output from each command execution|
|-r||A regular expression||-r [*. active]||Suppresses the output that matches the regular expression|
|-t||Not Applicable||-t||Displays the cells where the command will run|
|-x||A script with executable commands||-x list.dcl||The script will be executed on the target cells|
|-k||Names of the cell(s)||-k dwhcel01,dwhcel02||Establishes the ssh user equivalency|
|-f||A filename||-f run.dcl||Copies the files to the other cells but does not execute them. It's useful for copying files and executing them later.|
The commands CellCLI and DCLI are used to manage the Exadata Storage Server, and most likely are only commands that you are not familiar with as a DBA. In this installment you saw the most useful commands and their example usage. In the next and final installment, you will learn how to use some of these and Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control to check on the various components and get detailed reports.
Arup Nanda (email@example.com) has been an Oracle DBA for more than 14 years, handling all aspects of database administration, from performance tuning to security and disaster recovery. He is an Oracle ACE Director and was Oracle Magazine's DBA of the Year in 2003.